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Biserka Simčič, Mircha Poldrugovac and Dorjan Marušič
Kazalniki kakovosti in akreditacija kot orodja za vodenje kakovosti v zdravstvu v Sloveniji
Uvod. Proučevanje odstopanj od pričakovanih rezultatov dejavnosti je osnovno orodje za izboljšanje kakovosti. Tudi v zdravstvu se tovrstno proučevanje odvija, zlasti z določitvijo kazalnikov kakovosti in postavitvijo standardov ter presojo njihovega spoštovanja skozi sistem akreditacije. V Sloveniji so se, še posebej v zadnjem letu, vrstile dejavnosti, namenjene razvoju tega področja.
Metode. Potrebno se je bilo uskladiti in se dogovoriti za nacionalni nabor kazalnikov kakovosti ter pogoje za vzpostavitev ustreznega modela akreditiranje zdravstvenih ustanov v Sloveniji. Dogovor zahteva usklajevanje vseh ključnih akterjev in bistveno prispeva k razjasnitvi odnosov odgovornosti med partnerji v sistemu zdravstvenega varstva.
Rezultati. Oblikovan je bil razširjen nabor 72 kazalnikov kakovosti, ki se spremljajo na nacionalni ravni. Postavljene so bile tudi usmeritve glede akreditiranje, ki predvidevajo spodbude za akreditiranje pri mednarodno priznanih organizacijah. Pri tem je ključno upoštevanje nacionalnih in mednarodnih usmeritev, še posebej pa Direktive o pravicah pacientov do čezmejnega zdravstvenega varstva.
Zaključek. Skupna točka vseh partnerjev je zagotavljanje visoko kakovostne in varne zdravstvene obravnave za bolnika.
The basic requirements for human health and life quality improvement are wholeness, variety and moderation in food choices. In industrial countries the numbers of adipose inhabitants is constantly growing. People consume insufficiently vegetables, fruits and fish. The missing nutrients must be augmented with the help of functional foodstuffs. The objective of the study was to compare the impact of food supplements and local products rich in fibre and polyunsaturated fatty acids on the human body. The research was conducted at the Rîga Heart Consulting Room in 2010. For two months, 60 volunteers in three groups: using the food supplement “Wellness” in their diet (Wellness group), or Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) and linseeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) (Nature group) and Control group were monitored. The participants’ weight, girth, amount of glucose and level of cholesterol were measured by standard methods. Data acquired were analysed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS (level of significance P < 0.05). The cholesterol level was reduced by 14% in the Nature Group. Glucose normalised to 5.8 mmol/l. Weight of participants was reduced by 2 to 7 kg. The results show that by enriching the daily diet with food supplements, both as natural products and as a special complex, it is possible to reduce body weight, reduce cholesterol and glucose levels in the blood, and reduce the risks of obesity and coronary heart disease.
High quality is organizations’ competitive advantage. It is beneficial to base this on professional approach, and basic concepts and definitions with scientific foundation. The necessary main concepts consist of quality, quality management, quality improvement and quality assurance. Organizations’ top management is responsible of the quality management decisions and implementations. The present practical situation is fragmented and the implementations are most often based on the instrumental means of the different methodological schools, which is confusing and detrimental to the understanding and usefulness of the concept of quality management. It is not beneficial to build a special system for quality management by only following the requirements of the general standard. This cannot ensure competitive business advantage. In this article, we present an alternative approach that is a natural practical way to realize quality management as the teleological solution, Quality Integration, in which the general and specific quality concepts, principles and methodology are embedded within the normal business management activities. Our Quality Integration is based on the thinking of organizational learning. Its framework covers both running the current business and improving the overall business performance. This model has been used as the thinking framework in practical organizational cases since 1990’s. As the business circumstances change constantly, the organization must be constantly ready to renew through both small and radical changes. This change also receives resistance, and the development takes place according to a multi-phase process towards the new integration and requires a proper recognition and decisions. Principles of the organizational learning can help organizations in a consistent way. Evaluation of the overall organizational performance is an important quality management practice and should take into account performance enablers (processes) and also the results obtained thereof. In our approach, the evaluation criteria emphasize organizational learning and integration. The external context of the organization has a crucial role in achieving and developing the business objectives. The organization’s strategy can no longer be based on the value chains but on finding ways to alter them radically through value networking. The organization is influenced by the true and all-inclusive reality, which differs from the apparent reality perceived by the senses, and which is only revealed through consciousness. Understanding this reinforces awareness and trust that are important factors also in quality management and quality assurance.
In the last 50 years, both the authorities and the majority of the citizens have understood the need to enforce measures to both preserve energy and reduce the costs of producing it. Nowadays, every developed country has correlated the profitability and the competitiveness of its industry with the efficient and sustainable use of energy and is therefore making conscious efforts to improve these areas. Any action program deemed to enhance energy efficiency has as main component the critical analysis of the energetic resources allocated to an activity in a given perimeter, also known as energy audit. This paper aims to develop a model of risk classification to be applied in planning and performing procedures during energy audit, which can allow a common framework to be developed in this area of audit. The stakeholders of the entity will also be offered a unitary perspective regarding the risks of the respective business, which can be helpful in their decision-making process. The research methodology of this paper consists of quantitative instruments, namely the statistical analysis of a database containing energy audit conclusions of companies in Europe. The indicators used will relate to energy savings, the number of measures implemented as a result of the audit, the percentage of energy saved from total consumption (energy efficiency) and the business line of the company. The novelty this framework will bring consists of the congruence created in the energy audit procedures of different practices and of the standardization and quality improvement in energy audit opinions. The approach of energy audits will therefore evolve towards a risk based one, rather than an analytical one. Also, we will explain the importance of energy savings for the profitability and the competitiveness of companies in the economy today, while facilitating a transparent communication with the stakeholders. This analysis is relevant especially given the fact that the cycle of 4 years after the directive of mandatory energy audit has been enforced ends with 2018 and a conclusion can be drawn before the new audit period starts in 2019.