Often a distinction is made between interpersonal and institutional trust, as the former is defined in terms of encapsulated interests, that is the idea that somebody will take your interests into account. Scholars have argued that this cannot be applied to institutions and that generalized institutional trust is therefore not a meaningful concept. This article disputes this reasoning by distinguishing this kind of trust in the governance of capital cities from such trust in non-capital cities. It argues that it can be doubted especially for the local administration in capital cities that they predominantly have the interests of their residents in mind when making decisions. The resulting hypothesis that residents of capital cities have less trust in their local administration than residents of non-capital cities is tested and confirmed through a secondary analysis of Urban Audit data. The analysis shows a significant effect in the predicted direction, which remains strong when controlling for the satisfaction with public issues, the respective region, and poverty of the respondent. The conclusion is that citizens in municipalities do know whether or not local institutions have their interests in mind when making decisions, which makes institutional trust equally meaningful a concept as interpersonal trust.
M. I. Grano-Maldonado, F. Rubalcava-Ramirez, A. Rodriguez-Santiago, F. Garcia-Vargas, A. Medina-Jasso and M. Nieves-Soto
The aim of this investigation was to identify the parasites present in the largely understudied pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis in Sinaloa state in the northwestern Mexican Pacific coast. Inspection of twenty-eight oysters collected on “Ceuta” lagoon revealed the presence of the digenean Stephanostomum sp. (Digenea: Acanthocolpidae) cysts. Metacercariae were found encapsulated and embedded in the digestive gland and mantle tissue of oysters. The prevalence of infection revealed that 84.6 % were infected, the abundance was 13.62, with a mean intensity of 16.09 per host. The members of this genus are characterized by a double crown of spines in the cephalic region surrounding the buccal opening of the worm. Significantly, we report the first incidence of the digenean Stephanostomum sp of the family Acanthocolpidae parasitizing Crassostrea corteziensis. Further we report that this bivalve is now considered a new intermediate host, and the northwestern Mexican Pacific coast is a new geographical distribution area for this digenean. The findings contribute to our understanding of the biology, biodiversity and host preference of these parasites, with implications for health risks posed by human consumption of the pleasure oyster.
Liljana Spasevska, Vesna Janevska, Vlado Janevski, Biljana Noveska and Julija Zhivadinovik
Pancreas is an extremely rare abdominal localization of the solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). It usually grows asymptomatically for a long time before a diagnosis can be made on the basis of symptoms and/or mechanical complications. Due to the rarity and nonspecific clinical presentation, this entity is diagnostically challenging.
We present a 47-year-old man with a history of progressive epigastric pain for the last two weeks, and jaundice, who was admitted to hospital for further investigation. Cystadenocarcinoma was suspected based on the radiologic findings, and a pancreatoduodenectomy was performed. The removed portion of the pancreas contained a 3.5 × 2 × 1.8 cm well-circumscribed, but not encapsulated white tumor mass with smooth cut surface, cystic component and duct dilatation within the tumor and within the adjacent pancreatic tissue. Based on the histology and immunostaining profile, a diagnosis of the solitary fibrous tumor was made. One week post-operatively, the patient died due to surgical complications.
Microscopic and immunohistochemical examinations are necessary for accurate diagnosis of cystic SFT of the pancreas. Because there is limited data regarding the biological behavior of SFT with extra-pleural localization the authors recommend clinical follow-up for SFT treatment if the criteria of malignancy are not met.
Mariana Popescu, Florin Oancea, Elena Radu, Mălina Deșliu-Avram and Călina Petruța Cornea
Natural by-products from vegetable oil industries and spent edible oils from domestic or public food spaces should be recycled to obtain new added value products. Present paper proposed a technical solution for complete valorisation of inedible oilseeds or spent edible oils into bioproducts for nutrition and protection of plants cultivated in conservative organic agrosystems. Pressed cakes resulted from mechanical cold extraction of mustard oil contain residual oil and bioactive compounds which were released using an enzymatic cocktail 1:1 cellulase with proteases coupled with azeotropic solvents into a single Soxhlet extractor. From mustard meal, a solid fraction with glycerol derivatives of fatty acids (56.23% oleate and 17.47% linoleate) decanted from syrup (41.78% xylopyranoside and 48.48% trilinolein) and from mustard cake (76.44% linoleate) in the supernatant, the same oligosaccharide (29.64%) and proteinates (30.18%) in the solid fraction. The total extract was simultaneously concentrated and converted into a bioactive potassium salt emulsion able to encapsulate insectofungicidal natural compounds as bioproducts with agronomical applications.
Sustained release microspheres of ropinirole hydrochloride: Effect of process parameters
An emulsion solvent evaporation method was employed to prepare microspheres of ropinirole hydrochloride, a highly water soluble drug, by using ethylcellulose and PEG with the help of 32 full factorial design. The microspheres were made by incorporating the drug in a polar organic solvent, which was emulsified using liquid paraffin as an external oil phase. Effects of various process parameters such as viscosity of the external phase, selection of the internal phase, surfactant selection and selection of stirring speed were studied. Microspheres were evaluated for product yield, encapsulation efficiency and particle size. Various drug/ethylcellulose ratios and PEG concentrations were assayed. In vitro dissolution profiles showed that ethylcellulose microspheres were able to control release of the drug for a period of 12 h.
Problems of test-driven aspect-oriented development
Test-driven development and aspect-oriented programming are relatively new development techniques each having its own benefits. However, using aspect-oriented language like AspectJ in test-driven development leads to new types of problems that do not appear if these two approaches are applied separately. These problems arise mainly because aspect-oriented paradigm breaks encapsulation principle - behaviour of class is not implemented just in class itself like in traditional object-oriented programming but can be heavily affected by many external aspects. Traditional unit tests designed to test a single unit are not sufficient any more because behaviour being tested is distributed through several units at once, so test design becomes more complicated. In order to efficiently use these two techniques together such problems have to be identified and ways to workaround them have to be discovered. This paper focuses on those problems, describing the most notable ones. Problem descriptions are based on experience with AspectJ, but most of them are common to any aspect-oriented language with similar features. Some empirically discovered principles are provided that help softening negative impact of those problems.
This essay contextualises Shakespeare as product of a field of forces encapsulating national identity and relative cultural status. It begins by historicising the production of national poets in Romantic and Nationalist terms. Lefevere’s conceptual grid is then used to characterise the system that underpins the production of Shakespeare as British national poet, and his place within the canon of world literature. The article defines this context first before moving onto the figure of Shakespeare, by referring to various high status texts such as the Kalevala, the Aeneid, The Faerie Queene and Paradise Lost. The position accorded Shakespeare at the apex is therefore contingent upon a series of prior operations on other texts, and their writers. Shakespeare is not conceived as attaining pre-eminence because of his own innate literary qualities. Rather, a process of elimination occurs by which the common ascription of the position of national poet to a writer of epic is shown to be a cultural impossibility for the British. Instead, via Aristotle’s privileging of tragedy over epic, the rise of Shakespeare is seen as almost a second choice because of the inappropriateness of Spenser and Milton for the position.
Z. Hurníková, G. Hrčková, E. Ågren, P. Komorová, J. Forsman, B. Chovancová, L. Molnár and V. Letková
The worldwide distribution of Trichinella pseudospiralis, the first discovered non-encapsulated Trichinella species infecting both mammals and avian hosts, has been suggested to be attributed to bird migration. At present, the knowledge on the role of carnivorous avian species as a reservoir hosts in Europe is still limited. Thus, the aim of this research was to screen for T. pseudospiralis in raptorial, carrion-feeding, and scavenging birds in Sweden and Slovakia, where the parasite has been previously documented in wildlife. In total, 212 pectoral muscle samples of carnivorous birds from Slovakia (n = 153) and Sweden (n = 59) were examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae using standard artificial digestion method. Out of 12 Accipitridae species, 4 Falconidae species, 2 Strigidae species, 1 Tytonidae species, and 4 Corvidae species examined within our study, muscle larvae were found in two non-migratory tawny owls (Strix aluco) from one geographical region of Sweden. Histological and molecular methods confirmed the presence of T. pseudospiralis. This is the first report of this parasite in an avian species in Sweden and the second report in European birds.
Nicoleta Todoran, Adriana Ciurba, Emőke Rédai, V. Ion, Luminița Lazăr and Emese Sipos
Chloramphenicol eye drops are commonly prescribed in concentrations of 0.5-1% in the treatment of infectious conjunctivitis. In terms of ophthalmic solution preparation, the major disadvantage of chloramphenicol consists in its low solubility in water. The solubility is increased by substances that form chloramphenicol-complexes, for example: boric acid/borax or cyclodextrins. Objective: Experimental studies aimed to evaluate the potential advantages of enhancing the solubility and stability of chloramphenicol (API) by molecular encapsulation in b-cyclodextrin (CD), in formulation of ophthalmic solutions buffered with boric acid/borax system. Methods and Results: We prepared four APIb- CD complexes, using two methods (kneading and co-precipitation) and two molar ratio of API/b-cyclodextrin (1:1 and 1:2). The formation of complexes was proved by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the in vitro dissolution tests. Using these compounds, we prepared eight ophthalmic solutions, formulated in two variants of chloramphenicol concentrations (0.4% and 0.5%). Each solution was analyzed, by the official methods, at preparation and periodically during three months of storing in different temperature conditions (4°C, 20°C and 30°C). Conclusions: Inclusion of chloramphenicol in b-cyclodextrin only partially solves the difficulties due to the low solubility of chloramphenicol. The protection of chloramphenicol molecules is not completely ensured when the ophthalmic solutions are buffered with the boric acid/borax system.
Nanoagrochemicals, such as nanopesticides, nanofertilizers or plant growth stimulating nanosystems, were primarily designed to increase solubility, enhance bioavailability, targeted delivery, controlled release and/or protection against degradation resulting in the reduced amount of applied active ingredients and finally in a decrease of dose-dependent toxicity/burden. This paper is a comprehensive up-to-date review related to the preparation and the biological activity of nanoformulations enabling gradual release of active ingredient into weeds and the body of pests and controlled release of nutrients to plants. The attention is also devoted to the decrease of direct environmental burden and economic benefits due to application of nanoformulations, where less amount of active ingredient is needed to achieve the same biological effect in comparison with bulk. The application of nanotechnology in the areas such as food packaging, food security, encapsulation of nutrients and development of new functional products is analysed. The use of nanoparticles in biosensors for detection of pathogens and contaminants as well as in DNA and gene delivery is discussed as well. Benefits and health risks of nanoagrochemicals are highlighted, and special attention is given to nanoecotoxicology and guidelines and regulatory documents related to the use of nanoformulations in agriculture and food industry.