Liena Poisa, Aleksandrs Adamovics and Rasma Platace
Content of Heavy Metals in the Reed Canarygrass (Phalaris Arundinacea L.) in the First Year of Harvest
One of the major factors in achieving more biofuel is the amount of crop yield, but that is not synonymous with the yield quality. Plants are contaminated by heavy metals not only through the soil, but also from atmospheric pollution. The aim of this research was to establish the amount of heavy metals in the dry matter of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.). The Marathon variety of reed canarygrass was studied with two sowing periods and four N-fertilizer rate applications. The concentration level of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and titanium (Ti) in the samples of reed canarygrass were analysed with the coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer Perkin Elmer 2100 DV. The samples of reed canarygrass taken in April had a greater concentration of As, Cd, Pb, which means that the plants absorb the heavy metals also from the snow covering. The first year yield of reed canarygrass established a fundamental negative correlation between the amount of As, Cd, Pb and the ash content. The samples taken in April have a greater heavy metal contamination, than the samples taken in October. The sowing period fundamentally affected the concentration of lead in reed canarygrass samples, but the level of N-fertilizer rate application affected the amount of cadmium and arsenic.
Application of Statistical Methods for Analysis of Agricultural Runoff Monitoring Data
The paper presents a study on water quality concerning nutrients in relation to the hydrological and meteorological conditions in three agricultural catchments in Latvia. Statistical analysis, i.e., descriptive statistics, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman's Rank-Order correlation and cumulative probability function has been used to quantify relationships between variables. Results of the study could be used to evaluate the impact of agricultural intensity on water quality.
Aquatic beetles (Coleoptera) of carbonate habitats in the vicinities of Chełm (eastern Poland)
In the years 2008-2009 aquatic beetles (Coleoptera: Adephaga, Hydrophiloidea, Dryopoidea) of carbonate habitats were studied in the vicinity of Chełm. It is one of the most valuable natural areas of Poland, refugium of many rare species of plants and animals of xerothermophilic and aquatic habitats (mainly fens).
109 species of beetles were recorded (38% of Polish fauna among the studied families). In the research area Berosus geminus has the only site known in Poland which outlines the northern border of the whole species distribution area. On the edges of dense parts of their distribution areas there are also recorded sites of: Gyrinus suffriani, Haliplus furcatus, Spercheus emarginatus, Hydrophilus aterrimus and Dryops anglicanus. There were recorded 12 rare species occurring in Poland and five from the Polish Red List, as well as several rare and endangered species in the Lublin province.
Analysis of faunistic and ecological indicators proved that in the relatively habitat-homogenous research area, the most important for forming assemblages of beetles is the spatial structure of the water body. No correlation was displayed in the distance between the sites and their faunistic similarity, which indirectly indicates a low level of beetle migration.
Unmeliorated fens were characterized by the most natural fauna. With partial melioration it was deeply disturbed and very impoverished with stenotopic species. On completely meliorated fens fauna was again natural to a large extent, however, fen species occurred exclusively in ditches and canals, being very dependent on their form and human water management. Water fauna on carbonate habitats can be assessed as quite typical of fens in general - except for clearly evident presence of argilophilic species, which could result from a higher water reaction and larger fertility connected with a big amount of dissolved in water lime compounds.
Very interesting from ecological perspective and valuable for beetle protection turned out to be small water-courses of the research area, also those strongly transformed by human and even artificial ones. Their long sections have a structure which is favourable for species diversity and occurrence of valuable beetles.
The research area proved to be high quality refugium for aquatic beetles associated with dystrophic water bodies and small running waters.
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