Wojciech Prochwicz, Wojciech Macherzyński, Bogdan Paszkiewicz and Zdzisław M. Stępień
The vast majority of experimental techniques used for the measurements of hydrogen permeability through metallic membranes whose one or both surfaces are covered with a thin Pd film is based on the assumption that a ratio of film-to-membrane thickness is small enough to cause hydrogen flow to be independent of the Pd film thickness. In an attempt to verify this assumption, we have measured the hydrogen flow through the Pd33Ni52Si15 amorphous membrane covered with Pd film of 10, 20, and 30 nm in thickness. Contrary to our expectations, we have found a dramatic decrease in hydrogen flow with the increase in Pd film thickness. Our findings are discussed in terms of potential barrier between the two different phases.
Capacitive behavior of a highly-oxidized graphite is presented in this paper. The graphite oxide was synthesized using an oxidizing mixture of potassium chlorate and concentrated fuming nitric acid. As-oxidized graphite was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed with respect to the oxygen content and the species of oxygen-containing groups. Electrochemical measurements were performed in a two-electrode symmetric cell using KOH electrolyte.
It was shown that prolonged oxidation causes an increase in the oxygen content while the interlayer distance remains constant. Specific capacitance increased with oxygen content in the electrode as a result of pseudo-capacitive effects, from 0.47 to 0.54 F/g for a scan rate of 20 mV/s and 0.67 to 1.15 F/g for a scan rate of 5 mV/s. Better cyclability was observed for the electrode with a higher oxygen amount.
G. Bhuvaneswari, L. Guru Prasad and N. Prabhavathi
A triphenylmethane-4-nitroaniline salt has been synthesized and the crystals have been grown by using slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown single crystal was investigated by recording the powder XRD, FT-IR spectrum, UV-Vis spectrum, Vickers microhardness test, dielectric measurements and powder SHG. The growth of crystal was confirmed by analyzing the XRD pattern and it was stated that the grown material crystallized in triclinic system. Vibrational peaks of the functional groups existing in the compound were identified. Vickers microhardness studies were carried to measure the mechanical strength. In order to identify the phase transition temperature, the dielectric studies were carried out at different temperatures. Dielectric constant, dielectric loss and impedance of the crystal were monitored with respect to the frequency of electric field.
This paper presents an investigation on corrosion behavior of Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu-XAl (X = 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0) by means of polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The results show that addition of aluminum into SAC105 shifts the corrosion current density and passivation current density towards more positive values. It is also found that with an increase in aluminum concentration in SAC105 solder alloy, the corrosion current density increases and polarization resistance decreases. This suggests that SAC105 with the highest concentration of Al has the lowest corrosion resistance. In this case, the corrosion behavior seems to be attributed to anodic dissolution of aluminum and Sn-matrix.
Highly-ordered ternary Fe-Co-Ni alloy nanowire arrays with diameters of about 50 nm have been fabricated by alternating current (AC) electrodeposition into the nanochannels of porous anodic aluminum oxide templates. SEM and TEM results indicate that the alloy nanowires are highly ordered. XRD and HRTEM results show that the ternary FeCoNi alloy nanowires are polycrystalline, with HCP-FCC dual phase structure. Magnetic measurements demonstrate that the ternary alloy nanowire arrays have an obvious magnetic anisotropy with an easy magnetization direction being parallel to the nanowire arrays. Along the easy magnetization direction, the coercivity (Hc) and squareness ratio (S) increase as the annealing temperature increases, and reach a maximum level (Hc = 1337 Oe, S = 0.96) at 300 °C.
Dinara Sobola, Pavel Kaspar, Alois Nebojsa, Dušan Hemzal, Lubomír Grmela and Steve Smith
This study focuses on the description of oxidation of CdTe monocrystal surfaces after selective chemical etching. Measurements of surface morphology of the oxides occurring in short time are valuable for deeper understanding of the material degradation and fabrication of reliable devices with enhanced performance. The samples with (1 1 1) orientation were selectively etched and cleaned of oxide. Exposure of the oxide-free surfaces of CdTe to air at normal atmospheric conditions over 24 hours leads to an appearance of characteristic surface features. The oxidized surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and ellipsometry. The results indicate clear differences in the oxidation of Cd-terminated and Te-terminated surfaces.
Imran Khan, S. Kalainathan, M.I. Baig, Mohd Shkir, S. Alfaify, H.A. Ghramh and Mohd Anis
Present investigation has been started to perform the comparative study of pure and glycine doped KH2PO4 (KDP) single crystals grown by most commercial slow solvent evaporation technique. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis to determine their structural parameters. The linear optical studies of pure and glycine doped KDP crystal have been undertaken within 200 nm to 1100 nm wavelength range by means of UV-Vis studies. The enhancement in second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of glycine doped KDP crystal has been determined using a standard Kurtz-Perry powder test. The dielectric measurements have been carried out to explore the impact of glycine dopant on dielectric constant and dielectric loss of KDP crystal. The surface growth habitat and etch pit density of glycine doped KDP crystal have been evaluated using the results of microscopic etching studies. In light of obtained results the suitability of glycine doped KDP crystal for device applications has been discussed.
Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering method. The influences of deposition pressure, substrate temperature, Ar flow rate and film thickness on optical and electrical properties were investigated using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer and Hall measurements. The experimental results revealed that a low resistivity, smaller than 4 × 10-4 Ω·cm, was obtained when the deposition pressure was smaller than 0.67 Pa and substrate temperature about 200 °C. Ar flow rate had a small influence on the resistivity but a big influence on the transparency at near infrared range (NIR). We obtained optimized AZO thin films with high ponductivity and transparency at low deposition pressure, small Ar flow and appropriate temperature (around 200 °C). The etching behavior of the AZO thin films deposited at the different Ar flow rates was also studied in this paper. The results show that Ar flow rate is a very important factor affecting the etching behavior.
Denis Sokol, Maksim Ivanov, Andrei N. Salak, Robertas Grigalaitis, Juras Banys and Aivaras Kareiva
Magnesium-aluminum-bismuth layered double hydroxides (Mg3Al1−xBix; LDHs) were prepared using both coprecipitation and sol-gel methods. For the preparation of Mg/Al/Bi LDH by the co-precipitation method, the appropriate amounts of dissolved starting materials (Al(NO3)3 · 9H2O, Mg(NO3)2 · 6H2O and Bi(NO3)3 · 5H2O) were mixed with a solution of NaHCO3:NaOH. In the sol-gel processing, the precursor Mg–Al–Bi–O gels were synthesized using the same starting materials and ethylene glycol as complexing agent. The mixed-metal oxides obtained by subsequent heating of Mg–Al–Bi–O gels at 650 °C were reconstructed to Mg3Al1−xBix LDHs in water at 80 °C. All the synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dielectric measurements.
Arsia Khanfekr, Morteza Tamizifar and Rahim Naghizadeh
NbxO3 compounds (with x = 0.0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09) were synthesized by rotary-hydrothermal (RH) method. The process was conducted at 180 °C for 5 hours in a Teflon vessel that was rotated at a speed of 160 rpm during the hydrothermal reaction. The effects of donor concentration on the structure and properties of BaTi1−x
NbxO3 compounds were investigated. The experiments for the BaTiO3±Nb2O3 system produced by a solid state reaction at high temperature at different concentrations of niobium, with the use of RH processing have not been reported in previous works. For the phase evolution studies, X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) were analyzed and Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images were taken for the detailed analysis of the grain size, surface and morphology of the compound.