In the past few years the way in which, organizations, companies and corporations structure themselves has given a 180 degrees turnaround, switching from a structure based in products to a structure based in customers. The first big change was the introduction and use of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (ERP) like SAP and Oracle. Those ERP systems changed the way in which the information was managed in large corporations including now a central database and visualizing the structures and functions of the corporation by business processes and not by business areas. Also lately with the advent of the WEB 2.0, the boom of the social media and the big data analytics areas, business, marketing and the relation with the customer has totally changed. One of the most important drivers for this turnaround is the adoption of Customer Relationship Management (CRM). CRM is supporting software designed to improve the relation with the current customers (loyalty) using modern social media and massive marketing technologies.
This paper introduces the organizational issues of cross-cultural communication associated with the integration between marketing, customer service, and complaint management with information technology. In highly competitive environments a lot of organizations intent to construct a relationship with their current customers, since the cost involved in capturing new ones is a lot higher than the cost of retaining the current ones. The most crucial factor is the understanding of the clients and their values, norms, traditions, language, religions, perceptions, thoughts in few words their culture. So this cultural dimension analysis is essential and the development of a formal taxonomy or cultural concern framework a need. This paper will deal with the dimension concerns from the technical, cultural and organizational point of view needed to build this framework in order to avoid the terrible consequences of a wrong interaction with the customers due to cultural issues.
The development of Information Technology projects using Project Management Methodologies like PMP-PMI, Agile or SCRUM for software development, CPM, CCPM, RAD, XP, FDD, ITIL, JAD, LD, PRINCE2, etc.; may be a complete success or a total catastrophe, for series of reasons, events and circumstances that frequently are not related at all with the deliverables, the products being built, the IT technology involved, the level of expertise, the responsibility and professionalism of the stakeholders including the project manager, but due to intercultural factors. The PMP-PMI Model (PMBOK) describes 10 areas: Cost Management, Time Management, Scope Management, Risk Management, Quality Management, Procurement Management, Integration Management, Stakeholder Management, Human Resources Management and Communication Management. An IT project is considered successful if the customer is happy, but technically and formally if the TEAM was able to meet the triple constraint set up by time/cost/scope. This happy ending is not possible if the project manager and the team as a whole are not able to confront, attack and solve the issues associated with Human Resources Management, Stakeholder Management and specially Communication Management.
These three areas are highly influenced by Intercultural factors like language, race, age, gender, religion, sexual preferences, beliefs, habits, etc., becoming their analysis an essential task if we want to accomplish and guarantee a favorable outcome. This position paper concludes in contradiction with what is a very common believe between many technical project managers that the most important factors to take in consideration for the success of an IT project management is the careful and planned attention to the potential issues and challenges associated with the cross-cultural communication and the human resources implicated in the projects. This paper will describe the cultural dimensions, issues and challenges associated with Intercultural Project Management for IT.
Objective: This study explores the settlement decisions of Serbian self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) in the United States.
Methodology: Using qualitative phenomenological inquiry, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 Serbian SIEs, and the data were analyzed through the framework analysis method. This explorative study focused on individual preferences and processes, social interactions, and socio-economic environment through the concepts of decision theory, acculturation orientation, and transnational attachment.
Findings: Serbian SIEs were motivated to migrate to the United States for career opportunities, self-worth validation, departure from social norms placed by the Serbian society, and normal, happy lives. Their decisions to stay were deeply influenced by their family members, possible repatriation or further journey dependent on favorable opportunities at home, potential boredom with a current lifestyle, and intention to start a family. Serbian SIEs navigated the macro system based on knowledge gained through exploration and transnational networks. They chose the path of individualism and integration in terms of their acculturation orientation, which put them in balanced position for their own well-being. Serbian SIEs deliberately chose metropolitan areas, in which transnational attachments were fostered, and more opportunities arose.
Value added: Living in a culturally plural society has become a reality, leading to acculturation among migrants. If policy makers, hiring organizations, social service agencies, immigration officials, and law enforcement agencies understand why people choose to permanently relocate, they can also provide appropriate and relevant help in their adjustment challenges.
Recommendations: The research on migration and SIEs’ decisions shows strong evidence that it relates to economic and professional gain as well as social networks and family ties; however, economic and social factors are not the only ones influencing migration decisions. Studies that call for both person- and institutional level are needed for deeper understanding of migration and settlement decisions as parameters exploring the consequences of immigration, crucial for the development of the intercultural management field. This way, both micro- and macro-level aspects would be equally highlighted, while meso-level information would serve for providing the connection between the two.
Marcela Rebeca Contreras Loera and Mónica Velarde Valdez
The need to compete and grow encourages changes in organizations. In the fishing camps are created cooperatives, which know the reality of the environment and work with the aim of contributing to the development and progress of the fishermen and their communities. It is fundamental the role of its leaders, who have a responsibility to promote change in attitude and teamwork, to achieve personal and collective goals. This paper presents preliminary results of a larger study which main objective was to identify the type of leadership that dominates in the management of the Sinaloa fishing cooperatives. The study was conducted under the qualitative paradigm; data collection was carried out with semi-structured interviews with managers and former directives of fishing cooperatives located in central Sinaloa, complemented by the application of a questionnaire covering their socioeconomic profile.
The main findings show that managers are fishermen, cooperative members, elected by the General Assembly as the highest organ of administration, with an average age from 35 to 45 years old, with basic school grades. They know about the productive activity of artisanal fisheries and occupy the job of president of the board in periods of 2-3 years without administrative preparation to run them. Regarding the predominant style of leadership, managers of fishing cooperatives say their efforts are focused on the development of organizational tasks such as setting goals and targets for each fishing season. In relation with the development of human relationships among members of the cooperative, indicate that their main concern is the quality of mutual relations and the level of involvement of partners, and with that in mind they implement strategies for the integration and participation in the opinions and decision making for the members. With the above it is concluded that managers of fishing cooperatives are young fishermen who run the organization with little training for the development of their job and they practice predominantly a style of democratic leadership, because they promote the participation of partners in both contribution of opinions as in decision making, strengthening the trust deposited in him at the time of his election as leader.
In order to gain power in an ever-changing economy, in diversified markets, the organization must have an up-to-date information system that enables managers to get a detailed understanding of the organization’s status and to obtain what is needed to manage – the information. Starting from these premises, the empirical research presents the components of the information system. One of the main contributions, however, is to customize the opinions of the specialists and to create a logical scheme on the accounting information system. Moreover, through selective research, the article analyzed the managers’ interest in accounting information and its integration into the information system of the organization.
Jan Strelinger, Pavol Kita, Jaroslav Kita, Veronika Kitova Mazalanova and Ferdinand Dano
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