The Romanian natural gas market is still in its infancy regarding the manners in which the demand and supply match. We are frequently talking about market liquidity or about its dynamic behavior, without considering the monthly losses of the national natural gas system operator that derive from the very lack of matching the supply and demand. The present article proposes a method of overlaying the two in a manner that is feasible for the Romanian natural gas market of 2017, a method that will encapsulate the usage of OBAs (operational balancing agreements) in correlation with a model of allocating the demand and supply as a restricted all-pairs shortest path problem. Based on authors experience, five main variables will be examined: point-of-entry (location and time), volume, time and location of delivery, as well as other sets of data that are particular to this sector. This article will tackle the area of usability of OBAs between suppliers and the degrees of sustainability that such a model offers for clients, therefore the resilience of the system will be analyzed through an optimized transfer of information and accessibility to assets. Due to the complex nature of demand in energy markets and the different requirements set by clients, in which an energy resource can be requested by different sets of users, we will conceive a model that can be applied for natural gas, but also for electric energy production and industrial clients. The scope of this endeavor is to create a tool that will minimize the monthly losses of the national natural gas system operator, as well as its distributors, by allocating, in a fair and unbiased way, the responsibility of fulfilling the requested demand in a certain time unit.
This paper aims at explaining the volatility of two main macroeconomic variables (interest rate and exchange rate) that impact the cost of international capital and, consequently, the international financing decision. Firstly, the main economic theories are called to illustrate the relevant determinants of these variables from the perspective of demand and supply of capital sides. The state intervention through monetary policy is introduced to emphasize the alteration of these prices (the price of capital, the price of foreign currencies). The paper is presenting the role of these prices in international financing decision (based on the theoretical model used to estimate cost of international capital), their impact on the foreign direct investment decision and on the international portfolio investment decision. Finally, the paper describe the economic consequences of the monetary public intervention on the financing and investment decision in direct connection with the business cycle theory. The paper associates the monetary policy to the business cycles. The paper comments the unsound solutions proposed against the economic crises and that continued to harm negatively these prices generating the seeds for next international economic recession. The paper is a theoretical one, containing some very interesting research hypothesis and opening the paths for presumable further empirical researches.
Employability of graduating students is a main precondition for successful university to work transition. Discrepancies on the labour market in terms of demand and supply of highly qualified specialists, increasing requirements and expectations of recently university graduates towards their future jobs, high speed of technological changes resulting in new jobs for which educations is lagging behind and increasing demand for well-developed transferable skills are some of the main challenges which universities are facing nowadays. Thus, their main priorities shall stress on collaboration that is more effective with industrial companies, resulting in contemporary curricula and development and implementation of new forms of cooperation for encouragement of graduating students’ employability. There are some good practices in Bulgaria for common initiatives leading to better professional orientation and further job placing but there is a lack of overall strategic approach in this field. Therefore, there is a necessity of identification and introduction of new forms of cooperation, which will boost partnership and could provide the labour market with more adequate specialists, matching employers’ recent requirements. The purpose of the paper is to provide a methodology of evaluation of problems in university-industry cooperation for encouragement of graduating students’ employability.The main elements of research of cooperation between universities and industry in Bulgaria include (1) description of possible forms of cooperation, (2) evaluation of industry attitudes for cooperation based on 4 criteria - importance, application, interest for participation and awareness of the forms, (3) comparison of opinions of industry and universities in Bulgaria.
Current educational systems and processes need to anticipate the challenges of the new millennium and lay the foundations for the future in the economic, social, technological, cultural and relational context. New educational programs must seriously consider a number of conditions such as: entirely new ways of serving existing needs and significantly disrupt existing industry value chains; growing transparency, consumer engagement, and new patterns of consumer behavior; the development of technology-enabled platforms that combine both demand and supply to disrupt existing industry structures, such as those we see within the “sharing” or “on demand” economy. In this paper I`ve started from the assumption that in the specific conditions of a creativity-based economy is necessary to rethink the components of the matrix partnership crossing from `triple helix` to `quadruple helix` logic. This new model becomes necessary because under current regional and international circumstances Mode 3 of knowledge production has become generalized. In this paper I`ve opted for the concept that adds civil society proposing reformulate the analytical model so as to place in balance integration with differentiation to produce suitability for a societal design defined by the self-organization of the sense communication process with respect to the analytical axes of complex systems. The basic idea of the research is to identify the way in which the challenges of internationalization of education, the transformations required by the emergence of this process, and the most relevant redefining that must take place at the level of curricular architectures and learning methods are understood. Based on the research I have made, I recommended few ways to cope with sensitive challenges educational systems are confronted with such as: better connecting theory and practice, teaching a more useful economics, designing the future based on the understanding of the past, minimizing the rhetorical component and maximizing the factual one, testing conformity of different ideas in advance.