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considered to be problematical ( 13 , 14 ). When the proximal femur is fractured, the tension of surrounding tendons and muscle will often lead to dislocation of the fracture ends, which prevents skeletal healing. Surgical treatment of hip fracture involves surgical implants to fix the ends of the femur in their anatomical correct position to enable healing. There is a multitude of different surgical implants used for hip fracture repair, but the implants most commonly used can be categorized in three broad categories: hemiarthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty

://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2017.11.006 29253501 Ekedahl H Jönsson B Annertz M Accuracy of Clinical Tests in Detecting Disk Herniation and Nerve Root Compression in Subjects With Lumbar Radicular Symptoms Arch Phys Med Rehabil Epub ahead of print 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2017.11.006 23 Kortman HG, Wilder SC, Geisbush TR, et al. Age- and gender-associated differences in electrical impedance values of skeletal muscle. Physiol Meas 2013;34:1611–22. https://doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/34/12/1611 24165434 10.1088/0967-3334/34/12/1611 Kortman HG Wilder SC Geisbush TR Age

skeletal muscle tissues caused by ischemia. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics. 1998;45:151–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0302-4598(98)00083-x 10.1016/S0302-4598(98)00083-X Schafer M Schlegel C Kirlum HJ Gersing E Gebhard MM Monitoring of damage to skeletal muscle tissues caused by ischemia Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 1998 45 151 – 5 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0302-4598(98)00083-x 4 Gersing E. Impedance spectroscopy on living tissue for determination of the state of organs. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics. 1998;45(2 ):145-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0302

.1016/S0166-2236(02)02280-4 Huxley A.F. From overshoot to voltage clamp Trends in Neurosciences 25 553 558 2002 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-2236(02)02280-4 38 E.O. Hernández-Ochoa, M.F. Schneider, Voltage clamp methods for the study of membrane currents and SR Ca2+ release in adult skeletal muscle fibres. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 108, 98-118 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2012.01.001 Hernández-Ochoa E.O. Schneider M.F. Voltage clamp methods for the study of membrane currents and SR Ca2+ release in adult skeletal muscle fibres

Sheffield, and was used to identify premalignant changes in squamous epithelial tissue of the cervix [ 15 ] and perform virtual biopsies of squamous and columnar tissue in the esophagus [ 16 ]. The axial concentric electrode system has been used to determine the condition of a sample of food [ 17 ] and to measure physiological parameters [ 18 ]. In skeletal muscles, the anisotropy produces dissimilar values in orthogonal directions of electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements due to the intrinsic structure; the electrical conductivity along the longitudinal direction

overweight people have lower risk of osteoporosis [ 26 , 27 ]. Additionally, there exist studies that have shown that weight and high BMI are positively associated with BMD, while other studies have shown that body fat percentage influences BMD negatively [ 28 ]. Central or peripheral body fat mass have been reported to be inversely associated with BMD [ 29 ]. Visceral fat has also been reported to have negative impact on trabecular bone mass [ 30 ]. Here, body mass index was analyzed between groups to better understand the effects of weight and height on the skeletal

, may be used to provide information about relative redistributions of fluids between the intra-and extracellular compartments of the monitored segments. disease states [ 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ] and orthostatic dysfunction [ 7 , 8 ]. These redistributions affect cardiovascular function, water balance and perhaps skeletal muscle function through physiological mechanisms that may be better understood with simultaneous characterization of both the extent and rate of the intercompartment redistributions that take place during fluid management therapy. Tissues are ionic

-Hill 2000 15 Neef K, Choi YH, Perumal Srinivasan S, Treskes P, Cowan DB, Stamm C, Wahlers T. Mechanical preconditioning enables electrophysiologic coupling of skeletal myoblast cells to myocardium. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery, 2012:144(5):1176-1184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.07.036 Neef K Choi YH Perumal Srinivasan S Treskes P Cowan DB Stamm C Wahlers T Mechanical preconditioning enables electrophysiologic coupling of skeletal myoblast cells to myocardium The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 2012 144 5 1176 – 1184 http

electrodes, a signal generator, that was to deliver sinusoidal current and 2-to-16 multiplexer was used during current injection. The function generator injected current with a frequency ranging from 10Hz to 500 kHz. The sensitivity of the electrodes at the boundary was improved by incorporating the boundary and physiological stricter. This was the information of the human thorax taken from CT scan. The image from the CT scan was divided into segments, which consisted of segments of different organs like the heart, lungs, spinal column, and skeletal muscle. The segmented