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. (ed.), (1993), Selling Places: The City as Cultural Capital. Past and Present , Oxford: Pergamon Press. KOTLER, P., HAIDER, D. H. and REIN, I. (1993), Marketing Places: Attracting Investment, Industry and Tourism to Cities, States and Nations , New York: Macmillan. MADSEN, H. (1992), ‘Place-marketing in Liverpool: A Review’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research , 16, pp. 633-640. MICHALKÓ, G. (2007), Magyarország modern turizmusföldrajza (The modern tourism geography of Hungary), Budapest-Pécs: Dialóg Campus. MOLNÁR, E. (2005), ‘The Conditions

Regional Marketing to Change Regional Images: The Example of the Groningen Province Campaign

An important element in the urban and regional development strategy of many local and regional governments is geographical marketing. The process of geographical marketing combines promotional, spatial and organisational activities, and can be aimed at various groups.

From 1989 onwards, the province of Groningen, in the northern part of the Netherlands, has pursued such a geographical marketing campaign. This campaign, which is still being carried on, has used various means of communication: advertisements in newspapers and magazines, and radio and television commercials. It has been aimed at entrepreneurs and at the general public as well.

An ex ante study of the public image of Groningen was carried out in 1988, before the start of the campaign. For this purpose, a random sample of the Dutch population was inquired by telephone. Since then, similar inquiries were carried out every 2 years, in order to measure the ‘effects’ of the campaign. In these inquiries, the image of the provinces of Friesland and Noord- Brabant (considered as ‘competitors’ in the place marketing arena) was measured along with that of Groningen, and used for reference. The data set now reaches up to the year 2005. The availability of this kind of data for a period of 17 years, measured at regular intervals, provides a unique opportunity to study the development of regional images through time, and to find suggestions for the best possible way to continue the marketing campaign.

In this paper, the data of the inquiries will be analysed. The first question to be answered in the paper relates to the pace and the nature of the changes in image, observed in all three provinces. The second research question specifically deals with the influence of the marketing campaign on the image of Groningen.

. (2003), Success Factors of Place Marketing: A Study of Place Marketing Practices in Northern Europe and the United States , PhD thesis, Helsinki: Helsinki University of Technology, Institute of Strategy and International Business. RITCHIE, J. R. (1984), ‘Assessing the Impact of Hallmark Events: Conceptual and Research Issues’, Journal of Travel Research , 23, pp. 2-11. SIMOES, C. and DIBB, S. (2001), ‘Rethinking the Brand Concept: New Brand Orientation’, Corporate Communications: An International Journal , 6 (4), pp. 217-224. TEMELOVA, J. (2004), ‘Contemporary

. CZARNIAWSKA, B. (2002), A Tale of Three Cities or the Glocalization of City Management , Oxford: Oxford University Press. European Cities Monitor (2005, 2006), available at http://www.cushmanwakefield.com GEMEENTE AMSTERDAM (2003), City Marketing Quick Scan , Economische Zaken en Concerncommunicatie, Amsterdam. GOLD, J. R. and WARD, S. V. (eds), (1994), Place Promotion: The Use of Publicity and Marketing to Sell Towns and Regions , Chichester: Wiley. GRIFFITHS, R. (1998), ‘Making Sameness: Place Marketing and the New Urban Entrepreneurialism’, [in:] OATLEY, N. (ed

, A. (2012), ‘A destination-branding model: An empirical analysis based on stakeholders,’ Tourism Management, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 646–661. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2011.07.006 Gertner, D. (2011), ‘Unfolding and configuring two decades of research and publications on place marketing and place branding,’ Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 91–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/pb.2011.7 Gilmore, F. (2002), ‘A country-can it be repositioned? Spain – the success story of country branding,’ The Journal of Brand Management, vol. 9, no. 4/5, pp

Abstract

Purpose: Explanation of the essence and features of the “city placement” strategy, while observing the changes in “classic” forms of marketing communications used by cities and regions, including main pros and implementation procedures.

Methodology: This paper is conceptual and relies on diagnosis and analysis of “city placement” strategy implementation in a chosen Polish city as well as on the author’s professional experiences. Analysis of scarce existing marketing literature, including the notion of “product placement,” allowed us to present model structures, variations, and rules that explain the role and pros of the “city placement” strategy in the promotion mix of places.

Conclusions: This paper comprises not only a set of notions and models structuring the “city placement” phenomenon but also many operational concepts related to the implementation of this strategy, which makes this paper a valuable point in the discussion on innovative changes in the “promotion mix” of cities and regions.

Originality: “city placement” is a novelty in promotion strategies of cities and regions. In the existing literature on place marketing, there are no in-depth conceptual works explaining the role, features, and forms of “city placement.” This paper is a new approach suggested by the author and is an attempt to explain the process.

; Mayes 2008 : 125; Stock 2009 : 119). Das Image als entscheidende Zielgröße von place branding rechtfertigt sich dadurch, dass nicht die räumliche Realität, sondern die Wahrnehmung derselben durch relevante Zielgruppen für deren raumbezogene Entscheidungen relevant sind ( Vermeulen 2002 : 10 f.; Kavaratzis 2004 : 62). In der Fokussierung auf das Image als Zielgröße besteht nach Anholt der zentrale Unterschied zu herkömmlichen raumbezogenen Marketingkonzepten, die diesem Umstand keine Beachtung schenken. „[...] but place marketing is still seen fundamentally as a

-BRETON, M. (1997), ‘Selling the World City: A Comparison of Promotional Strategies in Paris and London’, European Planning Studies, 5 (2), pp. 137-161. CONSTANTINIDES, E. (2002), ‘The 4S Web-Marketing Mix Model’, Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 1, pp. 57-76. CULTMARK Project (2004a), Final Provided Good Report. CULTMARK Project (2004b), Promotional and Distributional ‘Maps’ Report. CULTMARK Project (2005a), Cultural Sector Report. CULTMARK Project (2005b), City Marketing Pilot Plan - Rostock. DEFFNER, A. and METAXAS, T. (2006), ‘Place Marketing: Preparing a

Abstract

The main aim of the article is to present the relationship between urban policy and the marketing activity of the presidents of Wrocław, Wałbrzych, Legnica, and Jelenia Góra during the period of the 2014 local government election campaign. Analysis of the marketing activity of the presidents, conducted via chosen social media, enables presentation of the most important conditions and reasons for using urban policy in the competition for the support of citizens – potential voters. First, it will show that the marketing actions of a president during an election campaign are not the means of creating the image of a city but gaining the support of voters. Second, the analysis will prove that the election message constructed by presidents is based on the actions conducted in the various areas of urban policy.

Summary

Shaping of the intra-municipal relations in the contemporary local government on the city of Poznan example The main objective of this article is to evaluate the significance of forming the intra-municipal relations in relation to place marketing, based on the example of the Polish city of Poznan. Different conceptions of place marketing, and intra-municipal relations are defined, their mutual correlation aimed towards increasing a city’s value is explained, and intra-municipal relations are illustrated. Poznan was chosen due to the preparatory cooperation which took place between the city, and its citizens. It is explained how Poznan’s authorities incorporate practices of shaping the intra-municipal relations as a place marketing practice, for facing the city’s important challenges such as: ageing of the society, ecological issues, the need for public participation, as well as the importance of maintaining a high quality of life for its citizens. The conclusion is drawn, that such marketing efforts for dealing with these issues do in fact have the joint goal of increasing the quality of life of all the residents of the city and that these practices are a recognised part of place marketing for the city of Poznan.