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Due to information technology development and its industrial adaptation, the dilemmas so far specific to philosophical speculations and science-fiction literature and films have become the real problems of the contemporary world. On one hand, these issues are related to an unprecedented scale on which computational algorithms are currently used as well as a level of complexity of mutual connections; on the other hand, these are linked to their autonomous behavior. States, industry, and users themselves demand formulation of understandable ethical categories and determination of transparency standards and legal norms for these algorithms’ functioning in the near future.
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P. Parichha, K. Basu, A. Bandyopadhyay and P. Mukhopadhyay
The present investigation deals with the problem of estimation of population mean in two-phase (double) sampling. Utilizing information on two auxiliary variables, one chain exponential ratio and regression type estimator has been proposed and its properties are studied under two different structures of twophase sampling. To make the estimator practicable, unbiased version of the proposed strategy has also been developed. The dominance of the suggested estimator over some contemporary estimators of population mean has been established through numerical illustrations carried over the data set of some natural population and artificially generated population. Categorization of the dominance ranges of the proposed estimation strategies are deployed through defuzzification tools, which are followed by suitable recommendations.