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In the period before the crisis, Montenegro experienced a rapid credit growth, which coincided with the privatization of several banks and was followed by the entry of foreign banking groups, amplifying the banks’ lending process and increasing competition in this sector. This paper focuses on identification and estimation of determinants of credit growth in Montenegro, exploring both demand and supply side factors, and particularly paying attention to supply factors. Our findings confirm that positive economic developments and an increase in banks’ deposit potential lead to higher credit growth. Furthermore, our findings emphasize that the banking system soundness is decisive for promoting further bank’s lending activities. We provide evidence that the weakening of banks’ balance sheets, in terms of high non-performing loans and low solvency ratio, has a negative effect on credit supply.

In addition, this paper provides a nuanced analysis of the determinants of credit growth by allowing these to be different before and after the global financial crisis. The post-crisis model finds that credit supply indicators gained in importance in explaining credit growth, while the model in pre-crisis period provides evidence that both demand and supply indicators matter in explaining credit growth.


After the 2008 crisis, despite economic recovery that started in 2009, the world economy has experienced a downward shift of its growth path and a consequent decline. As shown at the beginning of this paper, this shift and growth rate stagnation are totally attributable to the economic dynamics in developed economies, the USA and the EU. Explanations of this phenomenon can be divided into two large groups: explanations that belong to the demand side and those that belong to the supply side. The aim of this paper is to give a critical survey of the most important explanations for the ongoing growth stagnation in developed countries and consequently in the entire world economy. This ongoing prolonged stagnation can only be explained by looking at both, the demand and supply sides of the explanation, and particularly by taking a closer look at the interaction between aggregate demand and aggregate supply. In other words, secular stagnation manifests itself as a problem of the limitation of long run growth of aggregate demand. However, in order to explain the causes of those demand limitations, we have to undertake a careful analysis of the supply side dynamics, especially the dynamics of innovations, which bring us to circular and cumulative causation. In order to explain the numerous consequences of this stagnation and to solve some important puzzles, like the productivity paradox for example, a special emphasis is given to the analysis of deindustrialization and the consequent strange reoccurrence of a dual economy within most developed countries during the period of the IT revolution and hyper-globalization. It will also be shown that this new dual economy presents serious limitations for further technological advancement and economic development, quite contrary to the old dualism which contributed to an acceleration of economic growth.

its visitors (tourists and residents), as well as to analyse the impact of the promotion and preservation of this monument on the resident community. The paper is divided in three main sections. In the first section, a review of the literature is made on themes such as heritage, community identity, cultural tourism, creative tourism and community integration. In the second section, the municipality of Póvoa de Lanhoso is addressed through the analysis of social and economic characteristics of the municipality, tourism characteristics, tourism demand and supply


The paper presents analysis of the achieved development level of the housing market in Serbia. Various factors that have shaped demand and supply are systematized and their impact over the last decade was analysed and monitored. As important ones demographic, macroeconomic and financial factors are singled out and a special importance is given to the analysis of specific historical and socio-political circumstances that have influenced the development of the housing market during the period of analysis.

fundamental to the New Keynesian models, are that both demand and supply factors can be an impulse to generate business cycles, and many of these factors can be identified as shocks. Also, for the better impact of economic policy on economic fluctuations, it is necessary to have a better knowledge of the processes taking place in a given economy as the economic policy potential for stabilizing production and inflation around their equilibrium level is not reached. The third conclusion which can be reached is that the current knowledge does not allow short term


This article analyses the demand and supply aspects of the determinants of CPI inflation in Lithuania in 1998-2008. Content analysis was used to identify and group significant demand and supply inflation factors and using RGT, objectively assess and generalize the results. Pair linear correlation analysis confirmed the significance for CPI inflation of the factors identified through content analysis, and both research methods reliably and effectively helped to identify factors for regression models of inflation. Content analysis revealed that the causes of inflation most often mentioned and traditionally regarded as significant in the economic literature are factors such as money and wages, capital, competition and monopolies, and so on. Pair correlation research showed the significance for inflation of supply and demand factors such as income distribution, income levels, taxes, saving, human capital and labour productivity as well as exports and imports - things which content analysis gave only average or little mention. Regression models confirmed and helped to concretize the significance for inflation of the identified demand and supply factors. The results of the research show that inconsistent monetary and general government expenditure policies reinforce private consumption and capital shocks. Note that human capital and employment, which changed little during the analysed period, did not show the large significance for inflation that they are commonly thought to have.


The Romanian natural gas market is still in its infancy regarding the manners in which the demand and supply match. We are frequently talking about market liquidity or about its dynamic behavior, without considering the monthly losses of the national natural gas system operator that derive from the very lack of matching the supply and demand. The present article proposes a method of overlaying the two in a manner that is feasible for the Romanian natural gas market of 2017, a method that will encapsulate the usage of OBAs (operational balancing agreements) in correlation with a model of allocating the demand and supply as a restricted all-pairs shortest path problem. Based on authors experience, five main variables will be examined: point-of-entry (location and time), volume, time and location of delivery, as well as other sets of data that are particular to this sector. This article will tackle the area of usability of OBAs between suppliers and the degrees of sustainability that such a model offers for clients, therefore the resilience of the system will be analyzed through an optimized transfer of information and accessibility to assets. Due to the complex nature of demand in energy markets and the different requirements set by clients, in which an energy resource can be requested by different sets of users, we will conceive a model that can be applied for natural gas, but also for electric energy production and industrial clients. The scope of this endeavor is to create a tool that will minimize the monthly losses of the national natural gas system operator, as well as its distributors, by allocating, in a fair and unbiased way, the responsibility of fulfilling the requested demand in a certain time unit.

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Demand and Supply Model of Multilateral Trade. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 64(3), 432. doi: 10.2307/1925941 Greenaway D, Milner C. 2002. Regionalism and Gravity. Scottish J Political Economy, 49(5), 574-585. doi: 10.1111/1467-9485.00249 Grossman GM, Helpman E. 1993. The politics of free trade agreements: National Bureau of Economic Research. Gruber WH, Vernon R. 1970. The technology factor in a world trade matrix The technology factor in international trade (pp. 233-302): UMI. Hanson G, Xiang C. 2002. The Home Market Effect and Bilateral Trade Patterns