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This paper tries to outline a history of development of informal logic in Semitic languages and especially in Arabic. It tries to explain how the first definite formulation of rules of this logic appeared at āl-Šāfi‘y’s Risāla, a work on ’uswl āl-fiqh or methodology of law. It attempts also to provide new theories and hypotheses about the translation movement in the Arabic and Islamic medieval world.

less then it would be the more. and the argumentum a majori ad minus: اضح أنه ليس للذ ه أقل أو أنقص ، ف ضع ه أنه إ لم يكن ذلك األمر للذ ه أحر أ يك وهذا ال This topic is if it was not the case for what is more likely to be, then it is obvious that it cannot be the case for what is less or from what something is missing. These Judaic roots of some Islamic hermeneutic rules are evidence that the Islamic hermeneutics continues the Sumerian/Akkadian legal tradition as well as the Talmudic hermeneutics does. It distinguishes the Islamic logic from the