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considered a major risk factor carrying an increased morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients undergoing any kind of surgery, as they can often decompensate because of both anesthesia and surgery. [ 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 ] Diverse scores and indexes have been used for predicting the outcome of patients preoperatively, among which the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score and the age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (aaCCI) are the most validated for the pre- and perioperative evaluation. [ 14 , 15 , 16 ] However, in cirrhotic patients, the Child

Introduction Sepsis and the related multiple organ failure remains a worldwide problem leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. The currently available organ failure scoring systems, such as the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and the Simplified Acute Physiology II (SAPS II) scores are useful in the assessment of organ dysfunction over time and have been established as clinically useful indexes of severity and prognosis. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) calculated easily

Malnutrition Using Modified Subjective Global Assessmentdialysis Malnutrition Score in Patients on Hemodialysis. Indian J Pharm Sci 2011; 73: 38-45. 26. Nerbass FB, Morais JG, Santos RG, et al. Factors related to interdialytic weight gain in hemodialysis patients. J Bras Nefrol 2011; 33: 300-305. 27. de Mutsert R, Snijder MB, van der Sman-de Beer F, et al. Association between body mass index and mortality is similar in the hemodialysis population and the general population at high age and equal duration of follow-up. J Am Soc Nephrol 2007; 18: 967-974. 28. Tutal E, Sezer S


Introduction. This study was undertaken to compare and evaluate the heath-related quality of life (HRQOL) in Greek adult transplant recipients before and 2 years after successful renal transplantation (RT). The SF-36 survey score was used. Methods. Eighty-five Greek hemodialysis patients underwent RT at the Transplant Unit of Evangelismos General Hospital of Athens, including 44 men and 41 women (mean age 43.8 years; range 21-59 years). The scale scores of a Greek version of the SF-36 survey were compared between the transplant and the hemodialysis patients. We also examined the relationships of the scale scores with the patients′ age and the type of donor. Results. According to the SF-36 health survey, transplant recipients had better results for general health perception (p≤0.001), role-physical functioning (p≤0.01), role-emotional functioning (p≤0.01), and vitality (p≤ 0.01). In addition, the scale score of physical functioning, general health and vitality of the patients who were younger than 30 years at the time of transplantation were significantly higher than those of the patients who were older than 30 years, while the scores of bodily pain, general health, and physical functioning were significantly lower in cadaveric graft recipients compared with living-related recipients. Conclusions. The SF-36 health survey is a validated and comprehensive instrument for evaluating renal transplant patients′ HRQOL. Our data demonstrated an improvement in HRQOL in renal transplant patients 2 years after successful renal transplantation. The data also confirmed that the recipients′ age at transplantation and the type of donor were important factors affecting the HRQOL.


Introduction. The concept of alexithymia means dysfunction in emotional awareness, social attachment, and interpersonal relating. The study was performed to evaluate the alexithymia construct in patients treated with chronic maintenance haemodialysis.

Methods. TAS-20 was applied as a measure of alexithymia to a group of 230 patients, mean age 55.5±13.5 years, recruited from three dialysis centers.

Results. The results obtained showed that 50% of patients were alexithymic, and 18% had possible alexithy-mia. A small positive correlation was shown between age and obtained scores for alexithymia (r=0.025). Duration of dialysis also positively influenced the alexithymia scores (r=0.013). In addition, the duration of dialysis was significantly influenced by age (ANOVA 0.004, p<0.05). Factors analysis showed that F1 and F2 were not influenced by age or duration of dialysis. Only factor F3 (externally oriented thinking) was very perceptible and influenced by the age and the duration of dialysis (ANOVA p=0.016; <0.05).

No significant differences in scores between males and females were obtained. Only F1 was higher in males (p<0.05). The scores obtained for alexithymia were compared between healthy population and cancer and dialysis patients. Patients with chronic diseases were more alexithymic than healthy people (p< 0.05).

Conclusions. The alexithymia construct is a permanent personality trait related to neurobiological brain specifics. An alexithymia construct can influence the prognosis and outcome of dialysis patients as well as of other diseases. The psychological support for mediating alexithy-mia should be included in the therapeutic protocols, especially for end-stage renal diseases.


Researchers confirmed that depression and anxiety are two common comorbid disorders in chronic kidney patients. The aim of our study was to screen the level of depression and anxiety in a group of end-stage kidney diseases treated with hemodialysis. The evaluated sample comprised 230 participants; 110 females (mean age 55.5±13.5 years), and 120 males (mean age 54.5±14.3 years). The mean duration of maintenance dialysis was 8.3±5.8 years (from 0.5 to 24 years). Patients were selected randomly from three dialysis centers in R. Macedonia. As psychometric instruments Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and scores from Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201) were used. Our study confirmed that majority of evaluated dialyzed patients are depressed and anxious in different level, but unfortunately the mental problems are frequently unrecognized. We suggested some response measures for management of these conditions in order to avoid risks for complications as well of suicide.

, Yousefifard M, Hashemi B, et al. The value of serum creatine kinase in predicting the risk of rhabdomyolysis- induced acute kidney injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical and experimental nephrology 2016; 20(2): 153-161. 12. Safari S, Yousefifard M, Hashemi B, et al. The Role of Scoring Systems and Urine Dipstick in Prediction of Rhabdomyolysis- induced Acute Kidney Injury: a Systematic Review. Iranian journal of kidney diseases 2016; 10(3): 101-106. 13. Goldenberg I, Shechter M, Matetzky S, et al. Oral acetylcysteine as an adjunct to saline hydration for

Cardiol 2016; 1(8): 857-858. DOI:10.1001/jamacardio.2016.2051. 8. Calhoun DA, Jones D, Textor S, et al. Resistant hypertension: diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Professional Education Committee of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research. Circulation 2008; 117(25): e510-e526. 9. Gupta AK, Nasothimiou EG, Chang CL, et al. Baseline predictors of resistant hypertension in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcome Trial (ASCOT): a risk score to dentify those at high-risk. Hypertension 2011; 29(10): 2004

, Vupputuri S, Shoham DA, et al. SCreening for Occult REnal Disease (SCORED): a simple prediction model for chronic kidney disease. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167(4): 374-381. 37. Boulware LE, Jaar BG, Tarver-Carr ME, et al. Screening for proteinuria in US adults: a cost-effectiveness analysis. JAMA 2003; 290(23): 3101-3114. 38. Mischak H, Ioannidis JP, Argiles A, et al. Implementation of proteomic biomarkers: making it work. Eur J Clin Invest 2012; 42(9): 1027-1036.

resistance to medication. We, therefore, developed a Medication Intensity Score and a Hypertension Resistance Score to assess the effect of eplerenone on resistance to concomitant medication. Patients and methods Study population Patients being followed in our hypertension clinics (Drs. Dresser and Hackam) and stroke prevention clinics (Drs. Spence and Hackam) with a history of resistant hypertension that had led to assessment of plasma renin and aldosterone were screened for inclusion based on the previous levels of plasma aldosterone. Plasma aldosterone was repeated at