Mikołaj Lorenz, Paul Mozdziak, Bartosz Kempisty and Marta Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska
Arguably, the stem cell revolution began with the isolation of the first embryonic stem cell lines by Sir Martin Evans (Evans and Kaufman, 1981) with the initial application to generate functional gene knockouts, which lead to significant scientific discovery [ 1 ].
The application of stem cells is one of the subjects most studied in recent years related to treating various diseases. The possibility of implementing stem cells in Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal cord injury or stroke could revolutionize current nervous
 AASEN T, RAYA A, BARRARO MJ et al. Efficient and rapid generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human keratinocytes. Nature Biotechnol 2008; 26: 1276-1284.
 ALBERTS B, BRAY D, HOPKIN K et al. Essential Cell Biology, 2005 PWN.
 AL-HAJJ M, CLARKE MF. Self-renewal and solid tumor stem cells. Oncogene 2004; 23: 7274-7282.
 ALLAN DS, KEENEY M, HOWSON-JAN K et al. Number of viable CD34+ cells reinfused predicts engrafment in autologous hemopoietic stem cell
Sylwia Borys-Wójcik, Lisa Moncrieff, Bartosz Kempisty and Marta Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska
) enveloped in connective tissue called Wharton’s jelly (WJ) and covered by epithelium [ 1 ].
In recent years, the research at preclinical and clinical levels on stem cells derived from the umbilical cord is conditioned by these cells self-renewal ability, high potential for differentiation, immuno-modulatory properties, as well as their ability to restore tissues [ 2 ].
In this article, we try to present the latest reports on the use of umbilical cord stem cells in the treatment of common autoimmune diseases,such as type I diabetes or multiple sclerosis,and also the
Greg Hutchings, Mariusz J. Nawrocki, Paul Mozdziak and Bartosz Kempisty
CVD is the most prevalent mortality type worldwide, with an approximate 31% of deaths related to some form of CVD in 2016 [ 1 ]. In addition, it is estimated in Europe that CVD is the cause of 45% of deaths per year [ 2 ]. Two of the main risk factors in development of cardiovascular disease are obesity, stemming from poor diet, lack of physical activity, and smoking. These lifestyle choices can lead to hypertension, high blood cholesterol, atherosclerosis, all increasing likelihood of CVD.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) reports that over
Lisa Moncrieff, Paul Mozdziak, Michal Jeseta, Marie Machatkova, Wiesława Kranc and Bartosz Kempisty
-non coding RNAs, known as MicroRNA (miRNAs) [ 5 ]. These miRNAs have recently been found to be highly involved in the transforming growth factor (TGF)- β signalling pathway. This pathway is necessary for folliculogenesis and oogenesis, and therefore manipulating exosomes secreted by granulosa cells may provide information on how both processes work. Additionally, since the work of Kossowska-Tomaszcuk and colleagues, diverse stem cells derived from GCs have been cultured that can differentiate into tissues not found in the ovaries and thus demonstrate their stemness [ 6
Claudia Dompe, Grzegorz Wąsiatycz, Paul Mozdziak, Maurycy Jankowski and Bartosz Kempisty
The ability of stem cells to differentiate towards different cell lineages and constantly self-renew-makes them a promising tool in cell-based therapies such as tissue engineering and regenerative medicine [ 1 ]. The potential clinical application of stem cells remains highly significant and still not reduced to practice. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) were firstly characterized in 2001, with first description of the adipose tissue as an effective source of mesenchymal progenitors.
ADSCs have similar characteristics as mesenchymal stem
Magdalena Rojewska, Małgorzata Popis, Maurycy Jankowski, Dorota Bukowska, Paweł Antosik and Bartosz Kempisty
1. van Bekkum DW. Stem cell transplantation in experimental models of autoimmune disease. J Clin Immunol. 2000;20(1):10–6.
2. Angelini A, Castellani C, Ravara B, Franzin C, Pozzobon M, Tavano R, Libera LD, Papini E, Vettor R, Coppi P de, Thiene G, Vescovo G. Stem-cell therapy in an experimental model of pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure: role of paracrine and neurohormonal milieu in the remodeling process. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2011;30(11):1281–93; DOI:10.1016/j.healun.2011.07.017.
3. Elsaadany B, El Kholy S, El Rouby
K. Huňáková, M. Hluchý, M. Kuricová, K. Ševčík, J. Rosocha and V. Ledecký
1. Admyre, C., Grunewald, J., Thyberg, J., Gripenbäck, S., Tornling G., Eklund A., 2003: Exosomes with major histo-compatibility complex class II and co-stimulatory molecules are present in human BAL fluid. Eur. Respir. J. , 22, 578—583.
2. Bruno, S., Grange, C., Deregibus, M. C., 2009: Mesenchymal stem cell-derived microvesicles protect against acute tubular injury. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. , 20, 1053—1067.
3. Caby, M. P., Lankar, D., Vincendeau-Scherrer, C., Raposo, G., Bonnerot, C., 2005: Exosomal-like vesicles are present in