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Microbial Activity in the Large Intestine of Chicks Fed Diets with Different Types and Levels of Inulin

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of dietary level of two types of inulin differing in the degree of polymerization (DP) on microbial activity in the large intestine of chicks. The experiment was performed on 70 one-day-old Ross 308 male chicks divided into 7 groups fed starter-type diets without inulin addition or supplemented with 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.6% of inulin with DP≥10 (IN10), or DP≥23 (IN23). After 14 days of feeding birds were sacrificed to collect digesta samples from caeca and colon. Caecal digesta was examined for pH, concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and amines, activities of β-glucosidase and mucinase, and relative amount of selected bacterial populations, whereas in colonic digesta only pH, SCFA and amines were analysed. Regardless of DP, inulin level did not affect digesta pH, activity of bacterial enzymes and relative amounts of Clostridium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and E. coli populations. Dietary level of IN10 significantly affected propionic acid concentration, which was greater in caecal digesta of birds fed diet supplemented with 0.2% of IN10 compared to other groups and feeding diets supplemented with all levels of IN10 significantly reduced histamine concentration compared to the control. There were no effects of inulin on microbial activity indices in the colon. The present study indicates that, regardless of DP, inulin does not modify considerably microbial activity in the large intestine of chicks.

Open access
Influence of Chemically-Modified Potato Starch (RS Type 4) on the Nutritional and Physiological Indices of Rats

Influence of Chemically-Modified Potato Starch (RS Type 4) on the Nutritional and Physiological Indices of Rats

A biological study was undertaken to analyse the metabolic effect of feeding rats with an experimental diet in which cellulose was substituted with 20% contribution of chemically-modified potato starches (subjected to oxidation, esterification, cross-linking and dual modification). Caecum digesta mass was significantly higher in rats fed the experimental potato starch preparations compared to control group. Luminal ammonia concentration and pH of caecal or colonic content were lower as an effect of diets with all the investigated preparations. Compared to the cellulose-containing diet (control), all modified potato starch preparations raised the content of SCFA in caecum digesta when fed to rats. Significant lowering of the levels of triacylglycerols and total cholesterol was noticed for all chemically-modified starch preparations. The activity of β-glucuronidase determined upon the administration of potato starch preparations into rat diets was significantly lower as compared to the control diet. The results indicate that the chemically-modified potato starch preparations are a good substrate for the intestinal microecosystem and may promote the beneficial status of the gastrointestinal tract of rats.

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Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli, and Short Chain Fatty Acids of Vegetarians and Omnivores

, Nicoli JR, Neumann E, Nunes AC (2014): Lactobacillus species identification by amplified ribosomal 16s-23s rRNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Beneficial Microbes. 5, 471-481. doi: 10.3920/BM2013.0092 Schwiertz A, Lehmann U, Jacobasch G, Blaut M (2002): Influence of resistant starch on the SCFA production and cell counts of butyrate-producing Eubacterium spp. in the human intestine. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 93, 157-162. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2672.2002.01679.x. Scott KP, Gratz SW, Sheridan PO, Flint HJ, Duncan

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Fatty Acid Composition of Butter Originated from North-Eastern Region of Poland

fatty acids (in Polish). Prandini A., Sigolo S., Tansini G., Brogna N., Piva G., Different level of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in dairy products from Italy. J. Food Comp. Anal., 2007, 20, 472-479. Przybojewska B., Rafalski H., Fatty acids in milk vs. Human health. Saturated short-chain fatty acids SCFA. vol. 1, Przegl. Mlecz., 2003, 4, 148-151 (in Polish; English abstract). Stołyhwo A., Rutkowska J., Extrinsic fats in dairy products in view of Food Law of the EU (and domestic legislation

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Anticonvulsant valproic acid and other short-chain fatty acids as novel anticancer therapeutics: Possibilities and challenges

Abstract

Results from numerous pre-clinical studies suggest that a well known anticonvulsant drug valproic acid (VPA) and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) cause significant inhibition of cancer cell proliferation by modulating multiple signaling pathways. First of all, they act as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDIs), being involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Afterward, VPA is shown to induce apoptosis and cell differentiation, as well as regulate Notch signaling. Moreover, it up-regulates the expression of certain G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are involved in various signaling pathways associated with cancer. As a consequence, some pre-clinical and clinical trials were carried out to estimate anticancer effectiveness of VPA, in monotherapy and in new drug combinations, while other SCFAs were tested in pre-clinical studies. The present manuscript summarizes the most important information from the literature about their potent anticancer activities to show some future perspectives related to epigenetic therapy.

Open access
Effects of Partial Replacement of Soybean Meal With Rapeseed Meal, Narrow-Leaved Lupin, DDGS, and Probiotic Supplementation, on Performance and Gut Microbiota Activity and Diversity in Broilers

Abstract

This study examines the impact of soybean meal (SBM) substitutes, including solvent-extracted 00 rapeseed meal (RSM), narrow-leaved lupin (LUPIN), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) (each used at a ratio of 250 g/kg−1 in the diet), as well as administered probiotic (L. casei, L. plantarum, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, S. cerevisiae), on gut microbiota activity, diversity and performance. The experimental treatments were arranged in a 4 × 2 factorial design, with the factors being protein source in the diets (SBM only, RSM, LUPIN or DDGS) given from 8 to 35 days of age, and with or without a probiotic preparation administered in drinking water during the entire rearing period. The performance declined in birds fed with SBM substitutes (P≤0.01). The RSM diet decreased concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) (P<0.01) in ileal and caecal digesta as well as decreased bacterial enzymes activity in the caeca. The LUPIN diet increased viscosity and decreased SCFAs concentration in ileum, while the DDGS diet increased butyrate concentration in caeca. SBM substitutes and probiotic were involved in changing the Clostridiales and Lactobacillales diversity in the ileal and caecal digesta. Probiotic administration did not affect performance, but it did alleviate some negative effects of SBM substitutes on microbiota activity and diversity.

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The Effect of Royal Jelly on Growth and Short-Chain Fatty Acid Production of Probiotic Bacteria and Activity of Bacterial Procarcinogenic Enzymes in Rat Faeces

The present study was done to evaluate the effect of three different royal jelly samples on the kinetic growth of two isolates of lactic bacteria; Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum. The results showed that the addition of royal jelly supported and improved the growth of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum. The highest count of L. acidophilus was 9.01 (log10 cfu/mL) when 2% (w/v) of the royal jelly sample 3 was added to milk. The highest count of B. bifidum was 9.07 (log10 cfu/mL) when 5% (w/v) of the royal jelly sample 1 was added to milk. Based on the obtained results, royal jelly showed the capability of prebiotic activity and increasing the activity of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum. Royal jelly promotes SCFAs productions which are believed to have an antitumor effect. The results showed the presence of signifi cant synbiotic effect of fermented milk and royal jelly on the intestinal microflora. This effect is translated by the reduction in the faecal enzyme activities of β-glucuronidase, arylsulphatase, and β-gluconsidase which are involved in colon carcinogenesis.

Open access
The Effect of Combined Feed Additives on Growing Pigs’ Performance and Digestive Tract Parameters

Abstract

The aim of the research was to determine the affectivity of 4 different eubiotic preparations on the growth performance of pigs, microbial status, the integrity of intestinal mucosa, and some blood parameters. The experiment was conducted for 28 days on 48 male piglets allocated to six dietary treatments. Group 1 was offered a diet without eubiotic; 2 – a diet with acids mixture; 3 – phytobiotic, medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) and yeast; 4 – probiotic, MCFA, and yeast; 5 – phytobiotic, probiotic, acids mixture, and sodium butyrate; 6 – phytobiotic, probiotic, MCFA, and sodium butyrate. The average daily weight gains and feed intake were recorded. Blood samples, digesta samples, and ileal tissue samples were collected for studies. There was no significant difference in gain, feed intake, or FCR among the treatments as well as in the ileal and caecal pH value, microbial content, and total SCFA content in caecal digesta. Ammonia content in ileal digesta was significantly higher in comparison with other groups and in caecal digesta was significantly higher in group 6 in comparison with groups 1 and 2. Villi height was significantly higher (P<0.05) in groups 2, 3 and 6 compared to the control. Villi height to crypt depth ratio was significantly higher (P<0.05) in groups 5 and 2, but the most promising effects seem to be from combinations 3 and 4. In comparison with control: in groups 2, 3 and 5 higher ALT, glucose and triglyceride; in groups 3, 4 and 5 higher total protein and cholesterol; in group 4 higher albumin and in group 6 higher BUN, were found. Generally, used eubiotic preparations affected gut morphology and some blood parameters but did not affect microbiota, pig growth or feed utilization.

Open access
Digestibility and nutrient retention of a wheat bran-containing diet containing two vegetable oil sources applied to laying hens with emphasis on prefeeding period

mucosa in the small intestine ( Jaroni et al., 1999 ). In the gut, dietary fiber is usually degraded to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as butyrate, propionate, and acetate. Through the supplementation with WB containing dietary fiber, the production of SCFAs can be improved. These SCFAs provide energy for the colonocytes, modulate the immune system, further possess some anti-inflammatory potential, strenghten the intestinal barrier, and modulate oxidative stress reactions ( Hamer et al., 2008 ; Nyangale et al., 2012 ). Unfortunately, higher levels of WB in the

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The Effect of Supplementing Sodium Butyrate Containing Feed with Glutamine and/or Glucose on the Structure of the Piglet Digestive Tract and Selected Blood Indices

Abstract

The effect of supplementing the standard piglet diet containing sodium butyrate with glutamine and/or glucose on the structure of the piglet digestive tract and the small intestine epithelium, acidity and volatile fatty acid content of its digesta was investigated. The free amino acids level, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration in the blood were also analysed. The experiment was performed on 156 piglets (15 litters) allocated to 5 experimental groups, 3 litters in each. Group I (C, negative control) received a basal mixture with no supplement. Group II (SB, positive control) was fed the same basal diet containing additionally 3 g of sodium butyrate per kg. Group III and IV, besides sodium butyrate, received additionally 10 g of glutamine (GT) or glucose (GC), respectively. The last group V received all these supplements, i.e. SB+GT+GC (3, 10, 10 g per kg, respectively). At 60 days of age, the piglets (6 animals from each group) were slaughtered and their intestines were measured and weighed. The piglets in group SB+GT+GC receiving all the supplements grew slightly faster than the others, and at the end of the experiment the differences in body weight were significant. The total intestinal mass of the piglets fed with glucose or all the supplements was significantly higher than that of the piglets receiving glutamine but there was no significant difference in the total length of intestines. There was also no significant difference in acidity of chyme along the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract. Digesta in the jejunum of both control groups (C, SB) contained significantly more SCFA than the remaining groups. In the caecum their content in the negative control and the group fed with all supplements was significantly higher when compared to the butyrate and glucose group. In the duodenum villus height was similar in all the groups but in the jejunum it was significantly higher in the group receiving all supplements than in other groups. Free amino acids level was lowest in the piglets receiving glucose but there was no difference between the remaining groups. The lowest level of IGF-1 was found in the same group and this difference was significant when compared with remaining groups, except C. It is concluded that glutamine and glucose, when given together with sodium butyrate, improve the structure of piglet jejunum epithelium and average body weight gains. A supplement of glucose significantly lowers free amino acid content and IGF-1 level in piglet blood.

Open access