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MicroRNA regulated macrophage activation in obesity

facilitate the induction of genes under the regulation of PPARγ.[ 57 ] Similarly, liver X receptors (LXRs; nuclear transcription factors that heterodimerize with the retinoid X receptor RXRα) contribute to reduced pro-inflammatory signaling.[ 58 , 59 , 60 ] Indeed, LXRs have long been recognized for their role in the amelioration of autoimmune diseases and regression of atherosclerotic plaques, which are extensively orchestrated by M2 macrophages.[ 61 , 62 ] In recent years, increasing evidence supports the critical roles of miRNAs in regulating macrophage activation

Open access
Nanotechnology for treatment of glioblastoma multiforme

blood vessels of human glioblastoma multiforme. Acta Neuropathol 2000;100:323-31. 10.1007/s004010000180 Liebner S Fischmann A Rascher G Duffner F Grote EH Kalbacher H et al Claudin-1 and claudin-5 expression and tight junction morphology are altered in blood vessels of human glioblastoma multiforme Acta Neuropathol 2000 100 323 – 31 8 Argaw AT, Zhang Y, Snyder BJ, Zhao ML, Kopp N, Lee SC, et al . IL-1beta regulates blood-brain barrier permeability via reactivation of the hypoxia-angiogenesis program. J Immunol 2006;177:5574-84. 10.4049/jimmunol

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Contrast-enhanced ultrasound: A promising method for renal microvascular perfusion evaluation

-aminohippurate (PAH) or a radioisotope tracer. Although PAH still remains a gold standard, the technical difficulties associated with its use have limited its routine application in the clinic, although it is commonly used for research. Nuclear medicine based techniques also pose problems such as requiring time for excretion of the injected radioisotopes out of the body, and concerns regarding radioisotope exposure. Against this backdrop, CEUS offers a novel approach for RBF evaluation, without the above-mentioned concerns, as it appears to be fast, noninvasive, and safe

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