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Management of immune-related adverse events in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors– Rheumatology point of view

1 Introduction The immune checkpoints, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, programmed cell death protein and programmed cell death protein ligand 1, were the normal self-regulatory pathways to control T-cell activities in human body. In tumor microenvironment, these molecules were overexpressed to inhibit the normal T-cell function and survival, leading to an escape from the destruction from immune system. The immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPis) block this mechanism and restore the T-cell immunity to achieve tumor destructions. However, the

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Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for rheumatic diseases

regulatory T cells in peripheral blood. Further studies will be needed for any conclusive evidence for the application of MSCT in patients with RA. Another potential reason for conflicting results in MSCT studies in RA is that the effective mode of administration of MSCs is still unknown. A comparative study of MSCs showed that intra-articular MSCs were superior in cartilage formation compared with other modes of administration ( 22 ). In previous studies, intraarticular administration of MSCs had a low efficacy in patients with RA ( 23 ). A new delivery method of MSCs

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Complementary and alternative medicine for rheumatic diseases

groups. The tender joint count significantly reduced for the EA and TCA groups. The physician’s global score was significantly reduced for the EA group, and the patient’s global score was significantly reduced for the TCA group. [ 4 ] Systemic lupus erythematosus In Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), several diet supplements were investigated for their efficacy, as shown in table 1 . Table 1 Proposed mechanism Results Vitamin D supplement Increase regulatory T cells and decrease Th17, Th1 and memory B cells. Lower levels

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