Magdaléna Valšíková-Frey, Patrik Komár and Marián Rehuš
Nine selected varieties of tomatoes were grown in field experiments in order to follow up changes in the content of vitamin C, depending on the degree of the fruit ripeness. Vitamin C content of green fruit ranged from 6.74 mg (Denár) to 10.23 mg (Salus). The mean value for the varieties in the green state was 8.66 mg.100 g−1. The value of vitamin C in the semi-mature tomatoes ranged from 11.34 mg (Denár) to 14.95 mg (Darinka). The mean value for all varieties was 12.89 mg. 100 g−1. The lowest content of vitamin C was found in consumer (red) ripening tomato varieties Šejk (16.03 mg), Denár (16.32 mg) and Zámčan (16.80 mg) and the highest content of vitamin C in varieties Salus (19.43 mg) and Darinka (19.26 mg). The mean value for the nine varieties was 17.70 mg.100 g−1. In the botanical (overripe) maturity, we recorded the highest vitamin C content in the variety Salus (21.51 mg. 100 g−1). The highest increase in vitamin C was also recorded at the variety Darinka, where we registered the content of 21.32 mg.100 g−1. The lowest vitamin C content in botanical ripeness was observed in the variety Zámčan (19.44 mg.100 g−1). The average amount of vitamin C marked 20.26 g mg.100−1. The results can be concluded that the level of vitamin C is increasing by the gradual ripening of the fruits.
Magdaléna Valšíková, Miroslav Šlosár, Rudolf Ryban, Sami Shehata and Alžbeta Hegedűsová
The average vitamin C content of fresh carrots was 56 mg.kg-1. Amount of vitamin C was reduced by the length of storage and storage environment. On average, the most significant decrease in vitamin C to 24.4 mg.kg-1 under laboratory conditions was reported after 56 days when stored carrots were packed in plastic box. When stored in a refrigerator, the vitamin C content decreased to 24.7 mg.kg-1 after 126 days of storage in a plastic box. During both experimental periods in laboratory conditions, the most vitamin C was preserved while being wrapped plastic wrap. This way of packaging also enabled relatively long-term preservation of freshness in variety called “Komarno”, which was up to 60 days. The second best option in this respect is the packed carrot in microtene bags. The least convenient was to store the carrots open without packaging. In the case of refrigerated storage, the options of packaging in plastic wrap and microtene bags were also the best. The most significant decline in vitamin C was found in the variant without packaging and in the food box. Average soluble solids (refractometry dry matter) content in fresh roots reached 7.6%. During storage under laboratory conditions, the SS values increased to 14.8% after 14 days when the carrot was stored open without packaging. In the refrigerator, the soluble solids content in carrots increased to 12.7% after 28 days of storage without packaging. Increase in soluble solids content was mainly caused by transpiration process. Under laboratory conditions, evaporation and increase of soluble solids were faster compared to the variants stored in the cooler
Alena Andrejiová, Alžbeta Hegedűsová, Ivana Mezeyová and Elka Kóňová
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XIAO, X. – LESTER, G. E. – LUO, Y. – WANG, Q. 2012. Assessment of vitamin and carotenoid concentrations of emerging food products: edible microgreens In Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 60 (31), 2012, pp. 7644–7651. doi: 10.1021/jf300459b
XIAO, Z. – LESTER, G. E. – PARK, E. – SAFTNER, R. A. – LUO, Y
BABIK, I. - ELKNER, K. 2002. The effect of nitrogen fertlization and irrigation on yield and quality of broccoli. In: Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 2002, no. 571, p. 33-43. ISSN 0567-7572.
Byers , T. - Perry , G. 1992. Dietary carotenes, vitaminC and vitamin E as protective antioxidants in human cancers. In: Annual review of Nutrition, vol. 12, 1992, p. 139-159. ISSN 0199-9885.
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Ľubomír Gurčík, Viktor Porhajaš, Dávid Červený and Zuzana Bajusová
The paper discusses economic evaluation of the sea buckthorn cultivation as well as production of final products by processing the fruits of this economically interesting woody plant. The input data of the economic “ex post” analysis is based on the authentic data of the agricultural entity operating in Slovakia. Recently, we have been expanding the growing area of sea buckthorn to which we are contributing by educating and promoting the products from this medicinal plant. Sea buckthorn is an extraordinary healing plant called the “lemon tree of the north“. One sea buckthorn fruit will cover the daily dose of vitamin C. Even the ancient Greeks knew about the effects of sea buckthorn, which formed the basis for its Latin name – Hippophae rhamnoides – which means a shining horse. The sea buckthorn’s name was associated with a beautiful shiny coat of horses grazing on the plant. It is one of the world‘s most nutrient-rich plants because sea buckthorn areas have a unique composition and chemical analyses have confirmed that more than 190 substances are the best-ever independent source of natural clustering. These substances contain 10 different vitamins, 18 amino acids, 24 minerals and trace elements. Sea buckthorn has a high content of mono and polyunsaturated essential acids (omega 3, 6, 7 and 9) and phytosterols. It contains vitamins C, E, beta-carotene and another 40 carotenoids. The fruits contain all B vitamins. For these reasons, we consider buckthorn to be an exceptional plant that has the potential to expand its cultivation in all production areas. In the SR, the cultivation of sea buckthorn is based on small gardeners, on larger areas; the cultivation of this healing plant is a unique matter. An advertising campaign that promotes sea buckthron products has been launched by the pharmaceutical industry and its distribution networks. This increased interest creates a precondition for the expansion of the cultivation in the Slovak Republic.
Andrea Mendelová, Ľubomír Mendel, Martina Fikselová and Alena Andrejiová
Carrot (Daucus carota L.) belongs to the most common type of vegetable because of its consumption, versatile usage in the canning industry and because of its beneficial effects on the health of consumers. It is valuable mainly because of the high content of β-carotene, B vitamins, vitamin C, carbohydrates and minerals. The aim of this work was to compare the quality of carrot juice from different varieties of carrots regarding the content of total carotenoids and polyphenols and also to assess the dynamics of their changes evaluated under the influence of the pasteurization (85 °C). There were selected varieties of carrot such as Baltimore F1, Exhibition F1, Kamaran F1, Napoli F1, Belgrado F1, Komarno F1, Nantes, Rubina and Nandrin F1. The highest content of carotenoids, assessed by the spectrophotometry, was determined in variety Kamaran F1 (213.66 mg 100 g−1 dry matter) and the lowest in Belgrado F1 (146.80 mg 100 g−1 dry matter). After the pasteurization, the content of carotenoid decreased and ranged from 128.04 mg 100 g−1 dry matter in variety Napoli F1 to 142.55 mg 100 g−1 in Kamaran F1. The highest content of polyphenol determined by the Folin Ciocalteu method was found in fresh juice of Rubina (922.80 mg GAE 100 g−1 dry matter) and the lowest in the variety Nantes (535.75 mg GAE 100 g−1 dry matter). After the pasteurization, the content of the monitored components was found to be 450.34 mg GAE 100 g−1 dry matter in Napoli F1 to 751.95 mg GAE 100 g−1 dry matter in Komarno F1 variety.
Wiera Sądej, Andrzej Cezary Żołnowski and Olga Marczuk
naming soils and creating legends for soil maps, World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. FAO. Rome. www.fao.org/3/a-i3794e.pdf
Jung, H.G.G., Fahey, G.C. & Merchen, N.R. (1983). Effects of ruminant digestion and metabolism on phenolic monomers of forages. British Journal of Nutrition, 50, pp. 637-651.
Krupa, T. & Latocha, P. (2007). Antioxidant activity and contents of vitaminC and phenolic compounds in fruit of various hardy kiwifruit (Actinidia Lindl.) genotypes, Żywność - Nauka Technologia Jakość 5, pp. 237-244. (in Polish