Ole Martin Steihaug, Bård Bogen, Målfrid Holen Kristoffersen and Anette Hylen Ranhoff
considered to be problematical ( 13 , 14 ).
When the proximal femur is fractured, the tension of surrounding tendons and muscle will often lead to dislocation of the fracture ends, which prevents skeletal healing. Surgical treatment of hip fracture involves surgical implants to fix the ends of the femur in their anatomical correct position to enable healing. There is a multitude of different surgical implants used for hip fracture repair, but the implants most commonly used can be categorized in three broad categories: hemiarthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty
2009 30 6 S121 – 36 https://doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/30/6/s08
3 Schafer M, Schlegel C, Kirlum HJ, Gersing E, Gebhard MM. Monitoring of damage to skeletal muscle tissues caused by ischemia. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics. 1998;45:151–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0302-4598(98)00083-x 10.1016/S0302-4598(98)00083-X Schafer M Schlegel C Kirlum HJ Gersing E Gebhard MM Monitoring of damage to skeletal muscle tissues caused by ischemia Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 1998 45 151 – 5 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0302-4598(98)00083-x
the University of Sheffield, and was used to identify premalignant changes in squamous epithelial tissue of the cervix [ 15 ] and perform virtual biopsies of squamous and columnar tissue in the esophagus [ 16 ]. The axial concentric electrode system has been used to determine the condition of a sample of food [ 17 ] and to measure physiological parameters [ 18 ].
In skeletal muscles, the anisotropy produces dissimilar values in orthogonal directions of electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements due to the intrinsic structure; the electrical conductivity along
Leslie D. Montgomery, Richard W. Montgomery, Wayne A. Gerth, Marty Loughry, Susie Q. Lew and Manuel T. Velasquez
circuit analysis, may be used to provide information about relative redistributions of fluids between the intra-and extracellular compartments of the monitored segments.
disease states [ 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ] and orthostatic dysfunction [ 7 , 8 ]. These redistributions affect cardiovascular function, water balance and perhaps skeletal muscle function through physiological mechanisms that may be better understood with simultaneous characterization of both the extent and rate of the intercompartment redistributions that take place during fluid management therapy.
ranging from 10Hz to 500 kHz. The sensitivity of the electrodes at the boundary was improved by incorporating the boundary and physiological stricter. This was the information of the human thorax taken from CT scan. The image from the CT scan was divided into segments, which consisted of segments of different organs like the heart, lungs, spinal column, and skeletal muscle. The segmented sample is shown in Fig. 12 .
Meshes refined by COMSOL based on [ 54 ].
These boundary conditions were fed into the mathematical model and the conjugate gradient
Neurosciences, 25, 553-558 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-2236(02)02280-4 10.1016/S0166-2236(02)02280-4 12392929
Huxley A.F. From overshoot to voltage clamp Trends in Neurosciences 25 553 558 2002 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-2236(02)02280-4
38 E.O. Hernández-Ochoa, M.F. Schneider, Voltage clamp methods for the study of membrane currents and SR Ca2+ release in adult skeletal muscle fibres. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 108, 98-118 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2012.01.001 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2012.01.001
that weight and high BMI are positively associated with BMD, while other studies have shown that body fat percentage influences BMD negatively [ 28 ]. Central or peripheral body fat mass have been reported to be inversely associated with BMD [ 29 ]. Visceral fat has also been reported to have negative impact on trabecular bone mass [ 30 ]. Here, body mass index was analyzed between groups to better understand the effects of weight and height on the skeletal bones.
Bone loss is accelerated with decreasing estrogen in women after menopause. Also, it is known that