5. Ghasemi, M., Omid, E., Farshad, N., Ahmadreza, B., Saeid, A., Laleh, V., Moghimpour, R. (2011). Immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its correlation with tumor grade in breast ductal carcinoma. Acta Medica Iranica 49(12): 776-779.
6. Stefanou, D., Anna, B., Sevasti, K., Evdokia, A., Dionysios, J.P., Niki, J.A. (2004). Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and association with microvessel density in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. In Vivo 18(2): 155-160.
7. Campos, A.G., Campos
in breast carcinoma, its correlation with Ki-67 and other histopathological parameters. Indian J Cancer. 50, 189-194. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-509X.118724 PMid:24061457
13. Lian T. L., Guan, J., Qian, C., Jun, N. Z. (2015). Ki-67 is a promising molecular target in the diagnosis of cancer. Mol Med Rep.11, 1566-1572. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2014.2914 PMid:25384676
14. Cagnini, D. Q., Salgado, B. S., Linardi, J. L., Grandi, F., Rocha, R. M., Rocha, N. S., Teixeira, C. R., Del Piero, F., Sequeira, J. L. (2012). Ocular melanoma and mammary
Nora Mimoune, Rachid Kaidi, Mohammed Hocine Benaissa, Mohamed Wail Bahouh, Ratiba Baazizi and Mohamed Yassine Azzouz
The aim of this study was to carry out the metabolic profile comparison between follicular fluid and serum in normal cows and those affected by ovarian cysts (OC). After slaughtering, blood samples and follicular fluids from normal and cystic animals were collected and assayed using commercial kits to determine the concentrations of metabolites (glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, cortisol, triglycerides, urea, creatinine and insulin) and the liver enzymes activity. Data showed that OC were characterized by low levels of glucose, total protein, cholesterol and cortisol in cystic fluid, while urea concentrations were high compared to normal follicular fluid (P<0.001). On the other hand, serum assays of cystic animals revealed very low values of insulin and urea, whereas cortisol levels were relatively high in comparison with the serum of normal cows (P<0.001). Significant correlations between the serum and follicular fluid concentrations of normal cows were found for glucose (r=0.49), total cholesterol (r=0.31), cortisol (r=0.38) and total protein (r=0.63). The highest correlation was found for urea (r=0.86). On contrary, weak correlations were observed between metabolites concentrations in cystic fluid and in serum for normal and cystic cows. In conclusion, OC grow and persist in a metabolic environment, which differs from follicular fluid to blood. These changes may act together and/or separately to ensure the continuous development of OC. To understand a part of the mechanism, the authors propose a deep study about blood-follicle-barrier.
Judita Zymantiene, Rasa Zelvyte, Vaidas Oberauskas and Ugne Spancerniene
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of metabolic cage housing on the Wistar rat physiological state and to analyze the correlation between the minerals in blood and urine. Thirty male rats were used in the experiment. Fifteen rats (control group) were housed individually in standard polycarbonate cages and fifteen rats (experimental group) in metabolic cages (Techniplast, Italy) for two weeks. Body weight, respiration rate, water and food consumptions were recorded for each animal at the beginning of the experiment. The same parameters, as well as blood and urine parameters of control and experimental animals were recorded during the experiment after 72 h, 168 h and 336 h of housing in standard cages and metabolic cages. Urine collection was measured only in the experimental group. Rats weight decreased from 3.84 % to 18.59 % (P<0.05), respiration rate from 18.65 % to 24.59 % (P<0.05) when rats were housed in metabolic cages. Consumption of food and water by the rat depended on how long the animal was kept in metabolic cage. Glucose concentration increased on average by 15.37 %, WBC count decreased by 5.83 % in the blood of rats housed in metabolic cages compared to the animals housed in standard cages. We did not observe significant changes of triglycerides concentration, red blood cells count and total protein between all rats. The positive moderate correlation of rat housing in a metabolic cage was between K blood and K urine, P blood and P urine, Na blood and K blood, between Na urine and P urine and significant negative moderate correlation was determined between K urine and P urine. These present study findings indicate that metabolism cage housing significantly affects rat’s physiological parameters and potentially may influence animal health and wellbeing.
Mario Ostović, Sven Menčik, Ivica Ravić, Slavko Žužul, Željko Pavičić, Kristina Matković, Boris Antunović, Danijela Horvatek Tomić and Anamaria Ekert Kabalin
Good air quality in poultry houses is crucial for animal health and productivity. In these houses, air is generally contaminated with noxious gases and microorganisms, the concentrations of which depend on numerous factors including microclimate. In this case study, the relation between microclimate and air concentrations of noxious gases and microorganisms was investigated in extensively reared turkey house. The study was carried out at a family household in Dalmatia hinterland, Croatia, with 50.3±3.1 turkeys kept in the house during the study period. Air temperature, relative humidity, airflow rate, concentrations of ammonia, carbon dioxide, bacteria and fungi in indoor air were measured three times per month from September to December, in the morning, prior to releasing turkeys out for grazing. Air temperature ranged from 9.73 to 26.98 °C, relative humidity from 63.29% to 75.08%, and airflow rate from 0.11 to 0.17 m/s. Lowest ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations were measured in September (2.17 ppm and 550 ppm, respectively) and highest in December (4.50 ppm and 900 ppm, respectively). Bacterial and fungal counts were lowest in December (2.51×105 CFU/m3 and 3.27×103 CFU/m3 air, respectively) and highest in September (6.85×105 CFU/m3 and 1.06x105 CFU/m3 air, respectively). Air temperature and relative humidity showed negative correlation with concentrations of noxious gases and positive correlation with air microorganisms (P<0.05 all).
Branko Atanasov, Miel Hostens, Zehra Hajrulai-Musliu, Risto Uzunov, Nikola Adamov, Filip Davkov, Romel Velev, Geert Opsomer and Toni Dovenski
The objectives of the present study were to examine the fatty acid (FA) profiles in serum and in the follicular fluid (FF) and the association between polyunsaturated fatty acid level (PUFA) and follicular growth dynamics following induced luteolysis in dairy cows. A total of 29 dairy cows (CL>25mm, follicle≈15mm) at d0 (start of the experiment) were submitted to ultrasound guided transvaginal follicular aspiration for FF collection from the largest follicle and were injected with 500 μg of cloprostenol. The cows were subdivided into Group A1 (n=11) and Group A2 (n=8) resuming follicular growth either from a secondary follicle less than or larger than 8.5mm, respectively, present at the moment of aspiration and Group A0 (n=10) not resuming follicular growth. Follicular development was monitored daily by ultrasonography until the next dominant follicle reached ≈15mm and was subsequently punctured in Group A1 and A2 (d1). Serum and FF samples for FA determination were taken at d0 from all cows and at d1 in Group A1 and A2. No differences were observed between the FA profile in serum nor in FF between sampling days. Regarding the PUFA levels, the serum linoleic acid (C18:2n6) levels at d0 and d1 were significantly higher than in FF, while alpha linolenic acid (C18:3n3) was lower in the serum than in FF, both at d0 and d1. At d0, a tendency for negative correlation between serum and the FF C18:2n6 with subsequent daily follicular growth rate was observed, while, at d1 there was a strong negative correlation between the serum C18:2n6 and daily growth rate (r=−0.71; p=0.0006). The present study revealed similarities of the FA profiles in the serum and in the FF and association between serum and FF PUFA content with the follicular dynamics after induced luteolysis.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the success of Brucella spp. isolation in ruminant abortion cases by using different selective media. To this end, 58 samples from ruminant abortion cases were utilized. 4 selective media; namely, Farrell Medium (FM), CITA Medium (CM), Modified Thayer Martin (MTM) and Jones & Morgan (JM) were preferred for isolation. In addition to these, one medium with antibiotics was used to extend the range of the results. Suspensions prepared from organ and fetal stomach contents were inoculated to media plates and incubated at 37C° for 5-8 days in 5-10% CO2 condition. Conventional biotyping method was used to identify Brucella isolates within the level of species and biovar. MTM (67.2%) and Farrell (65.5%) outperformed the other media with regards to isolation rate. However, regarding the inhibition ability against contaminant microrganisms, Farrell (86.2%) and CITA (72%) have the highest and second highest percentages respectively. The media’s inhibition ability was examined in the samples in which Brucella spp. isolation occurred to be able to investigate the correlations between isolation and inhibition. Lower isolation percentage was observed in the samples in which the media displayed the lowest inhibition ability against contaminants. In this context, using two different selective media with high inhibition ability against contaminants may be recommended to enhance the isolation rate. Moreover, the components stimulating the growth of Brucella strains might be added to the media to obtain better results.
Branko Angjelovski, Aleksandar Cvetkovikj, Slavcho Mrenoshki, Ivica Gjurovski, Toni Dejanoski and Toni Dovenski
The objectives of the present study were to determine the production performances of sows on commercial pig farms in the Republic of Macedonia, to compare the differences in sow productivity data between small and large farms and to examine interrelationships of key production parameters among farms with different sizes. The study was retrospectively based and included the annual (2012) analyses of the sow productivity data in small (<200 sows, n=4) and large (200-1000 sows, n=5) commercial pig farms. The data was statistically evaluated and compared with the known literature. Sows productivity was greater on the small farms compared to the large ones. The small farms had larger litter per sow (PBL), more pigs born alive (PBA), higher weaning weight (WW) and more pigs weaned per sow per litter (PWSL) than the large ones (p<0.001). Small farms also had greater farrowing rate (FR) (p<0.01). Higher replacement rate (RR), lower average parity (AP), greater number of litters per sow per year (LSY) and higher sow death rate (SDR) were observed in large farms (p<0.001). The large farms also had less non-productive days (NPD) than the small farms (p<0.001). Different intensity of correlations also were observed for several productive parameters among the farm groups. The data obtained in this study show that sow productivity on Macedonian pig farms is lower than in EU countries. Small herds are more efficient than the large herds. Despite all limitations, our study provides information for veterinarians regarding reproductive parameters of sows and their interrelationships on Macedonian pig farms. Further investigation should be made in order to identify whether specific management factors have effect on the productivity of the breeding herd.
). Correlation between nuclear factor-kB activity in bronchial brushing samples and lung dysfunction in an animal model of asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 161: 1314-1321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm.161.4.9907010 PMid:10764329
4. Lavoie, J.P., Maghni, K., Desnoyers, M., Taha, R., Martin, J.G., Hamid, Q.A. (2001). Neutrophilic airway inflammation in horses with heaves is characterized by a Th2-type cytokine profile. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 164: 1410-1413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm.164.8.2012091 PMid:11704587
5. Léguillette R
Goran Stojković, Elizabeta Dimitrieska-Stojković, Marija Soklevska and Romel Velev
1. Fresta, M., Furneri, P.M., Mezzasalma, E., Nicolosi, V.M., Pugeisi, G. (1996). Correlation of trimethoprim and brodimoprim physicochemical and lipid membrane interaction properties with their accumulation in human neutrophils, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40(12): 2865 - 2873. PMid:9124856 PMCid:PMC163637
2. Saha, N., Kar, S.K., (1977). Metal complexes of pyrimidine-derived ligands - I: Nickel (II) complexes of 2-hydrazino-4,6-dimethyl pyrimidine, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 39, 195-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1902(77)80465-X