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The aim of the article is to present budget deficit and government debt in the European Union member states, with particular consideration of the countries that belong to the PIIGS group. This paper has focused on the scale of these phenomena, on their reasons and on some attempts made to improve the unfavourable situation. In the main thesis presented in the article, it is stated that budget deficit and general government debt come as significant threats to economic security of the European Union (EU) countries. The research methods that have been applied in the study involve descriptive analysis and statistical data analysis.
The aim of the article is to present the significance of neighbouring countries in the structure of inbound tourism for the member countries of the European Union. In order to achieve this aim, some secondary materials presenting the volume and the structure of tourist traffic in the analysed countries have been referred to. The structure of the article allows the Author to provide a detailed analysis of the particular problems in the discussed field. Firstly, a review of scientific literature on tourist traffic and the significance of neighbouring countries for inbound tourism is provided. The next part of the text presents the countries adjacent to the European Union member states. Subsequently, the significance of these destinations is indicated, due to the data that present the structure of inbound tourism. It transpires that in most analysed countries, their neighbouring states come as a significant - and often even the most important - segment in inbound tourism. Furthermore, neighbouring countries often take the top positions on the list of the countries the citizens of which visit particular destinations most frequently. The analysis of the structure of inbound tourism in Poland in the years 2012-2016 also indicates that the neighbouring markets form the most important segment, regardless of some changes that took place during the analysed time period. Due to the review of some relevant documents, it is indicated (on the example of Poland) that neighbouring countries are often of priority significance in the assumptions and development plans for tourism, although the ranks of the particular countries can be different. On one hand, the considerations presented in the article allow the Author to evaluate the significance of neighbouring countries for inbound tourism in the particular countries; on the other hand, they indicate the necessity of including these countries into the tourism policy, along with promotion activities undertaken in the foreign markets.
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The European Union has been highly emphasising the role of public procurement for innovation as a policy instrument that can be used to stimulate sustainable development. This development reflects and responds to improvements in social welfare, growth of entrepreneurship and of national competitive advantage. In the process of selection, the awarding tender public procurement institutions lack an overall approach for choosing the most advantageous and sustainable innovation alternative. To contribute purchasing of innovative solutions, the present paper elaborates a framework of innovation measurement and quality evaluation. Thus, it makes possible to assess proposals from different aspects and to choose the most valuable offer notwithstanding the lowest price criteria.
The paper studies the concept of public procurement, its pitfalls and prospects, dimensions of innovation definition and innovation added value assessment. The authors conducted expert interviews, which were analysed using an AHP method in order to set the most appropriate evaluation criteria indicator. The authors also designed the framework for assessing the quantitative and qualitative value of innovation proposals. The proposed approach is based on the analysis of innovation quality, added value, its potential impact and the sustainability of changes it produces.
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