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Characterisation of Municipal Sewage Sludge as a Soil Improver and a Fertilizer Product

Sustainability. Luxembourg: European Union; 2012. DOI: 10.2788/67153. http://ies.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ . [23] Alakangas E, Hurskainen M, Laatikainen-Luntama J, Korhonen J. Properties of fuels in Finland, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., VTT Finland, VTT Technical Report 272, Finland; 2016. http://vtt.fi . [24] Nyyssonen V, Wenying X, Mondal PK, Oskenbayeva A, Neupane RK. Study on economic sustainability of sewage sludge treatment plants in China and Finland. Int J Adv Res. 2017;5:1763-1772. DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/3689. [25] El-Nahhal IY, Al-Najar H

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EFFECT OF BIOFUELS ON ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

, Golusin M, Ivanovic OM, Jovanovic L, Andrejevic A. Renewable Energy and Socio-economic Development in the European Union. Problemy Ekorozwoju/Problems of Sustainable Development. 2013;8(1):105-114. [24] WWF. Oil Palm, Soybeans & Critical Habitat Loss. A Review Prepared for the WWF Forest Conversion Initiative. 2003. [25] Junk W, Cunha CN. Pantanal: A Large South American Wetland at a Crossroads. Ecol Eng. 2005;24(4):391-401. [26] OECD, International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2011. [27] FAO, 2013

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Gaseous Products from Scrap Tires Pyrolisis

Gaseous Products from Scrap Tires Pyrolisis

In European Union 75% of used tires should be recycled. The most common method of used tires disposal, is burning in cement kilns, which does not solve the problem. Pyrolysis process can be an alternative way of utilization of tires. The aim of the researches was to check the influence of pyrolysis products (gas and oil fractions) on environment. Samples from pyrolysis process, like light oil fractions or pyrolysis gases were analyzed using gas chromatography. The pyrolysis installation should be hermetical, because of the PAHs which were detected in a light fraction of oil. In exhaust gases BTEX and PAHs were not detected.

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Assessment of the Reliability-Cost Efficiency of the Pumping Subsystems at Water Treatment Plant

Abstract

In last years all countries of the European Union experience decrease of water consumption. What is worse, in most cases large European water treatment plants (WTP) have been design and built decades ago, when water consumption was much higher than nowadays. It is a challenging task to adjust WTP’s capacity to the current water demand as it is associated with costs and safety issues. Minding that fact, authors decided to propose an new authorial methodology of combined reliability-cost efficiency assessment for water supply system with exceeded redundant capacity, based on new index - unit indicator of reliability-cost efficiency. It included both reliability and costs aspects. It was decided to present the new method on example of the pumping subsystems working for WTP in Poland. The research was based on Activity-Based Life Cycle Costs (AB-LCC) methodology together with two-parametric reliability evaluation. Using real operational and financial data an application of proposed authorial reliability-cost indicator was presented. The reliability-cost efficiency assessment allowed to present how operation of each pumping subsystem influenced global operational costs of WTP. This information is essential for decision-making process for rational management of technical facilities.

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A REVIEW OF MODELS FOR THE ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION OF HEAVY GASES. PART II. MODEL QUALITY EVALUATION

Abstract

This is the second paper of a two part review. In its first part mathematical models for atmospheric dispersion of heavy gases are classified and the distinguished groups of models are characterised. In this part procedures for the model quality evaluation are described and the main results of model evaluation exercises and databases with experimental data related to the subject are summarised. The quality of a model is clearly of great importance since the decisions concerning the safety of people, environment are based on model calculations. Attention is focused on activities carried out in the European Union countries and in the USA. These include the work of the groups of researchers called MEG, HGDEG, projects known under the names REDIPHEM, SMEDIS, DATABASE and the model evaluation exercise carried out by the Sigma Research Corporation.

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The Use of Sequential Extraction for Assessing Environmental Risks of Waste Incineration Bottom Ash/Wykorzystanie Ekstrakcji Sekwencyjnej Do Oceny Zagrożeń Dla Środowiska Powodowanych Przez Żużle I Popioły Z

Abstract

Thermal treatment of waste is one of the ways of their processing. It is commonly used in most developed countries of the European Union. Major by-products of the combustion processes are slag and bottom ash. In the majority of EU countries bottom ash and slag are used as a priming for road construction. In Poland slag and bottom ash from incineration process are stabilized with the addition of cement and some polymers and are landfilled as wastes. In accordance to Polish law, depending on the leaching of heavy metals from fly ash and slag after thermal treatment of waste can be regarded as both hazardous and non-hazardous wastes. At present work sequential extraction methods described in the literature: Tessier’s method, van Herck’s method and BCR method were compared experimentally with the results of using Swiss standard TVA.SA.1991 and European standard EN 12457 and total concentration of metals in sample analyzed after complete digestion of sample. The study sample was bottom ash from the medical waste incineration plant.

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Analysis of Solar Energy Resources in Southern Poland for Photovoltaic Applications / Analiza Struktury Zasobów Energii Słonecznej Obszaru Polski Południowej Do Zastosowań Fotowoltaicznych

Abstract

The article presents an analysis of the resources and the structure of the solar energy in the area of Southern Poland on the basis of complete meteorological data from the AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow in 2009. An analysis attempt of its use for photovoltaic conversion using different modules with different spectral characteristics of absorbers was made. These latest methods for characterizing the structure of solar energy resources such as: distributions throughout the year: sky clearness or cloudiness indexes, the average values of photon energy (APE) and the contents of the useful fraction (UF) of the solar spectrum, are not yet widely known and used as in Poland and in other EU countries, despite the fact that most accurately determine the spectral matching factor for the chosen photovoltaic module. Due to the need for a very expensive measuring equipment, are used only by a few laboratories in the European Union, such as CREST (Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology) in the UK. The article presents - developed and used in the Opole University - a new low-cost method for determining of the spectrum with the use of above-mentioned indexes, including APE and UF, without buying an expensive spectroradiometer, which gives comparable results.

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BUILDING THERMOMODERNIZATION AND REDUCING AIR POLLUTION

building before and after the thermo-modernization. Polish Academy of Sciences. The Committee on Environmental Engineering, Monographs: Polish environmental engineering after five years in the European Union 2009;3(60):207-216. [13] Third Assessment Report, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2000. [14] Kryza M, Mill W, Dore AJ, Werner M, Blas M. Calculation of sulphur and nitrogen deposition with the frame model and assessment of the exceedance of critical loads in Poland. Ecol Chem Eng S. 2013;20(2):279-290. DOI: 10

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Unconventionals in Europe: Best Practice vs. Worst Case - The Conflict Between Facts and Public Perception

References [1] Emmermann R, editor. Hydraulic Fracturing: Eine Technologie in der Diskussion. Deutsche Akademie der Technikwissenschaften; 2014. [2] EASAC (European Academies Science Advisory Council) 2014: Shale gas extraction: issues of particular relevance to the European Union. http://www.easac.eu. [3] EPA 2015: External Review Draft, EPA/600/R-15/047a, June 2015. http://www.epa.gov/hfstudy. [4] SASEG, editor. Swiss Bulletin for Applied Geology. Special volume on Hydraulic Fracturing. Swiss

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Application of Rough Set Theory to Establish the Amount of Waste in Households in Rural Areas

References [1] Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/dir/2008/98/oj. [2] European Union Statistics. Eurostat. Waste statistics. 2016. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/waste_statistics. [3] Ministerstwo Ochrony Środowiska. Sprawozdanie z realizacji krajowego sytemu gospodarki odpadami - plan 2010. (The Ministry of Environmental Protection. Report on the implementation

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