The Cor Iesu amanti sacrum, a series of engravings made by Anton II Wierix around the year 1600, became one of the most important series of religious emblems from the 17th and 18th centuries. The engravings’ printed reception is well known: there are numerous graphical copies, as well as books written on the basis of the emblems, starting with the work by the French Jesuit Étienne Luzvic, entitled Le cœur devot throsne royal de Iesus pacifique Salomon, from 1626. The article discusses the handwritten reception of the series, which until now has remained virtually uninvestigated. The authors analyze five works of literature, preserved in Polish and Netherlandish 17th-century manuscripts and inspired by the engravings from the Cor Iesu amanti sacrum: Het herte Jesu by an anonymous Netherlandish protestant (a manuscript from Tilburg), Opofferingh van het herte aan den Bruijdegom Iesus Christus by the Netherlandish scientist and doctor Jan Swammerdam (a manuscript from Ghent), and three untitled Polish versions: a poetical collection by the Jesuit Mikołaj Mieleszko, dedicated to the Duchess Katarzyna Radziwiłł in 1657 (a manuscript from Saint-Petersburg) and two different works preserved in monastic libraries (manuscripts from Imbramowice and Stary Sącz).
This paper examines 17th-century descriptions of Algonquian and Iroquoian languages by French and British missionaries as well as their subsequent reinterpretations. Focusing on such representative studies as Paul Le Jeune’s (1592–1664) sketch of Montagnais, John Eliot’s (1604–1690) grammar of Massachusett, and the accounts of Huron by Jean de Brébeuf (1593–1649) and Gabriel Sagard-Théodat (c.1600–1650), I discuss their analysis of the sound systems, morphology, syntax, and lexicon. In addition, I examine the reception of early missionary accounts in European scholarship, focusing on the role they played in the shaping of the notion of ‘primitive’ languages and their speakers in the 18th and 19th centuries. I also discuss the impressionistic nature of evaluations of phonetic, lexical, and grammatical properties in terms of complexity and richness. Based on examples of the early accounts of the lexicon and structure of Algonquian and Iroquoian languages, I show that even though these accounts were preliminary in their character, they frequently provided detailed and insightful representations of unfamiliar languages. The reception and subsequent transmission of the linguistic examples they illustrated was however influenced by the changing theoretical and ideological context, resulting in interpretations that were often contradictory to those intended in the original descriptions.
Possessive resultative constructions containing a HAVE-verb and a past passive participle have been used in West Slavic languages for centuries without showing a rapid grammaticalisation into a perfect (cf. evidence from Polish and Czech). The same holds for Slovak, where examples can be found at least from the 17th century on without rapidly changing on the grammaticalisation chain. At the same time, Krupa demonstrated in 1960 a loss of congruence between object and past passive participle in possessive resultatives in colloquial Slovak distinguishing different types. Loss of congruence is often considered to be an important grammaticalisation step for emerging participial perfects. A sought in the Slovak National Corpus brought some evidence for such constructions in journalistic texts and from the Internet (the same types as used by Krupa), but their frequency is very low so far.
.literaturaniderlandzka.pl. Eds Alicja Mitka, Małgorzata Orzeł. Wrocław: Towarzystwo Przyjacioł Ossolineum. 8-14.
_____. 2003b. „Cor Europae - Brussels or Warsaw?” For East is East. Liber amicorum Wojciech Skalmowski. Eds Tatjana Soldatjenkova, Emmanuel Waegemans. Leuven-Paris-Dudley MA.: Peeters. 161-163.
_____. 2007. Iter Polono-Belgo-Ollandicum. Cultural and Literary Relationships between the Commonwealth of Poland and the Netherlands in the 16th and the 17thCenturies. Krakow: Księgarnia Akademicka.
_____, ed. 2009. Humanizm. Historie
The paper aims at giving a retrospective view of the presence of Czech in Slovakia through prism of the concepts language situation, communication situations and standardness.
Within the conditions of the feudal heterogeneity of the Hungarian Monarchy and without any distinct cultural and political centre of the Slovaks, in a situation of considerable dialectal variety, the Czech language fulfilled the role of a comprehensible and within the whole society (among educated Slovaks) valid and relatively unified written form of the “local language” (lingua vernacula). In the 14th and the 15th centuries this Czech got only relatively little Slovakized. During the 16th and the 17th centuries two mutually overlapping tendencies of the development of the written language of the Slovaks were being formed: 1. Slovakized Czech, or a Slovak-version Czech, and 2. Regional Variants of Cultural Slovak. Both tendencies found their place in the Catholic as well as in the Protestant environment. In the 2nd half of the 18th century, with continuation into the beginnings of the 19th century, two directions that started to be formed already in the previous period, became crystalized: 1. Under the influence of the progressing re-Catholicization, the Slovakized Czech of the Protestants undertook the direction from diglossia towards “pure” Czech (at least in the sense of an intention), and the Protestant circles unequivocally accepted it as their standard language, sometimes denoting it as reč československá (Czechoslovak language) or českoslovenčina (the Czechoslovak); 2. In the Catholic environment, the cultural Western Slovak of the southern type and called bernolákovčina (Bernolák‘s Slovak) was codified, with the status of an autonomous standard language – a development away form diglossia towards Slovak. It was a period of two standard languages to which Štúr’s codification of Slovak put an end. His codification was based on the northern Central Slovak dialects, and after its modification in the so called opravená slovenčina (“corrected Slovak”) it was accepted by the representatives of both confessions.
This article proposes a literary walking tour of Timişoara as seen by British authors who visited the city from the beginning of the 17th century to present. The article proposes a synthesis of the authors’ perceptions of some of the main attractions of Timişoara: the Bega Canal, the Victory Square, the Liberation Square, the Union Square and the Bastion.
The paper discusses the ironic manner in which gender relations are often tackled in the early modern English romance, from Shakespeare’s comedies to Sidney’s pastorals or Lady Mary Wroth’s poetry. Strong female characters, effeminate males and the subversive, often ambiguous, manner in which the theme of love is approached in 16th- and 17th - century English literature are some of the aspects to be discussed.
The paper investigates the preoccupations of the 16th and 17th-century English society for the emerging phenomenon and concept of privacy, reflected, among others, in the new ways in which space is employed in defining hierarchies and gender roles. The paper deals with elements of cultural history related to the use and meaning of privacy, private life and private space in a Shakespearean play which is significant for the visual illustration of the concept – Cymbeline, more specifically, the bed-trick scene.
Historians of the U.S. Southwest invariably rely on English-language translations of original Spanish documents for their interpretive work. However, a philological approach to the Spanish documents reveals all manner of translator shortcomings, some of which negatively impact the historical record. I document one such instance pertaining to the early history of Texas and argue that the failure to adhere to sound philological practice has produced an inaccurate historical canon. Data are taken from a Spanish expedition diary from the late 17th-century and from unpublished archival sources pertaining to it.
The article A narrative portrait of Marie Grubbe in Lone Hørslev’s novel Dyrets år (The Year of the Beast) discusses the latest biographical novel on the controversial Danish aristocrat from the 17th century. In order to address the issue in closer detail, a brief biography of Marie Grubbe is given in the article’s introduction which is followed by a presentation of all the Danish works of fiction on the person that have been published so far. The analysis shows that the authors’ approach to their protagonist varies from disgust to fascination, depending on the period that the work originates from. Lone Hørslev’s Dyrets år may not be a genuine masterpiece, but it definitely adds new, contemporary aspects to the overall understanding of Marie Grubbe’s conduct and enriches her portrait with some traits which have not yet been discussed.