Vilawan Chirdkiatgumchai, Nichara Ruangdaraganon, Rawiwan Roongpraiwan, Tasnawat Sombuntham, Pat Rojmahamongkol and Rungtip Prasertchai
Background: More than 90% of cases of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are idiopathic and are multi-factorial inheritant in etiology. Although parental perceptions of ASDs etiologies including genetics have been investigated well in western countries, there is no study regarding Asian parental perspectives on the genetic etiology of ASDs. Objectives: Examine what Thai parents perceived to be the etiology of ASDs with particular focus on the role of genetics, and analyze the correlation between demographics of parents and the perception of genetics as an etiology of ASDs. Methods: Children diagnosed with an ASD at Ramathibodi Hospital were recruited, and 328 questionnaires were mailed to their parents between February 1 and March 31, 2008. Based on 252 answers received, the perception of genetics as an etiology of ASDs was evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Among 252 parents, 44.0% cited genetics, 52% cited other prenatal and perinatal factors such as stress and chemical exposure during pregnancy, 33% cited postnatal factors such as child rearing, child’s viewing of television, and playing computer game as etiologies of ASDs. Parents’ education, positive family history of ASDs, and positive family history of speech delay were all significantly associated with the perception of genetics as an etiology of ASDs. Conclusions: Less than half of Thai parents cited genetics as an etiology of ASDs. This finding alerts medical professionals to spend more time and effort to educate and counsel parents.
The development of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has significant economic and social impacts at both the global and regional level. Some of these implications have been perceived as positive and unexpected. While both the positive and negative social and economic impacts have been highlighted in the literature, opinions on these impacts remain ambiguous. Those aspects considered to be advantageous include faster communication, ease of use, development in the range of services and revenues, and an increase in individuals’ free time allowance. ICT penetrates all branches of the economy as a set of general purpose technologies. New information and communication technologies ease everyday life, serve as tools to help people in extreme situations, e.g. accidents, illnesses or natural disasters, and are also the pillars of contemporary entertainment media. The usefulness of ICT has been stressed and loudly disseminated to a large extent by the media. On the other hand, these new technologies sensitize society in quite new ways to the well-known natural hazards that people have encountered in the past.
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This article deals with systematization of the categories of emotional intelligence, emotional potential and a relationship between emotions and feelings, and emphasizes the importance of a sustainably developed personality in the context of sustainable education (Jovaiša, 2007, 2011). The inward consistency is perceived as an internal human orientation, showing itself in positive relationship with the exterior world and the individual (Pileckaitė-Markovienė, 2002). A person with a strong sense of internal consistency has a stronger motivation and appears to be more resistant to stress. Educating children to become emotionally sustainable individuals, means helping them to solve their emotional issues, in order to learn important behaviour strategies and to experience positive interactions with their environment. Children who receive emotional education remain more composed and stable in critical situations. They are able to deal with their feelings, even the negative ones, more easily. Such children are less vulnerable to various illnesses and diseases; they experience less anger and aggression.
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