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This paper aims to analyse Spanish tourism policy and its relation to a series of facts. The research combines an extensive review of the existing studies into the aspects of tourism policy linked to government, geography and economy with an examination of statistical sources. The main issues and findings analysed in this study are highlighted below. Firstly, the evolution of tourism policy of Spain in the last 60 years in relation to the process of national economic development is analysed. Secondly, a limited role of tourism on economic and territorial balance as well as changes in the regional distribution in the supply of hotel accommodation is highlighted. Thirdly, territorial changes related to the supply of hotel accommodation and GDP per capita are discussed. Finally, certain topics are suggested for future debate: tourism and imbalance as well as tourism and development.
Applying the linear LAS (Latin American Structuralists) technological intensity model in Africa, this paper presents African nations are still diversifying their outputs towards the ubiquitous (fewer complexes) products. Put it simple, using the economic complexity index of Africa (explanatory variable) as a proxy for the technological intensity in Africa and per capita GDP gap (explanatory variable) as a proxy for technology gap, the paper presents a significant and positive relationship between economic complexity index of Africa and the time derivative of the economic complexity index of Africa (the explained variable). This implies that “weak” effort African nations exerted so far in diversifying their outputs towards the less ubiquitous commodities and absence of “automatic catch up tendency” (unlike what is presupposed by the mainstream neo-classical growth models). The linear panel data regression is employed on sample of 23 African economies and OECD member economies for the period 1996-2014.
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The aim of this paper is to evaluate the individual- and country-level variations in unregistered employment. To analyse whether it is marginalised groups who are more likely to engage in unregistered employment and explain the country-level variations, a 2010 Life in Transition Survey (LiTS) involving 38,864 interviews in 35 Eurasian countries is reported. Multilevel logistic regression analysis reveals that younger age groups, the divorced, and those with fewer years in education, are more likely to be unregistered employed. On a country-level, meanwhile, the prevalence of unregistered employment is strongly associated with tax morale; the greater the asymmetry between informal and formal institutions, the greater is the prevalence of unregistered employment. It is also higher when GDP per capita as well as social distribution and state intervention (subsidies and transfers, social contribution expenditure, health expenditure) are lower. The paper concludes by discussing the theoretical and policy implications.
Particularly in an emerging or developing economy context, generating sufficient tax revenues is essential for the provision and upkeep of well-needed public infrastructure/public capital that supports the development process. However, tax policy can also cause distortionary and negative effects to economic activity and growth, especially if excessive taxation is imposed. The aim of this paper is to examine the role of tax revenues and estimate its overall net impact on economic growth in emerging economies in Asia. The dataset covers emerging economies from South, Southeast, and East Asia during 1998-2015. The results show that tax revenues have an overall positive net impact on the growth rate of real GDP per capita, suggesting the positive effects associated with taxation outweigh the negative and distortionary effects of taxation. Thus, evidence is found that the collection of adequate amounts of tax revenues (with which public investments were financed) contributed significantly to economic development.
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Yuwadee Leelukkanaveer, Pornchai Sithisarankul and Narin Hirunsutthikul
Background: Provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing (PIHIVCT) is an important intervention that improves the access to care to HIV-infected patients and subsequently contributes to the success of national HIV/AIDS control efforts. However, in Thailand, the cost-effectiveness of this program is unknown. Objective: Determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) in terms of Thai Baht per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) of PIHIVCT for outpatient department (OPD) patients in community hospitals of Thailand compared with the current practice. Methods: A model-based health economic evaluation study was conducted based on results from cluster randomized controlled trials in 16 community hospitals of Thailand. The Markov model and the probabilistic sensitivity analysis were used. One-thousand two-hundred seventy-seven HIV-infected patients completed questionnaires on their household expenditure and quality of life using the visual analog scale. Results: In social perspectives, the PIHIVCT program increased a patient’s life span by 5.18 days or 4.15 qualityadjusted days per OPD case and the ICER was 63,588 Baht per QALY gained. The subgroup analysis showed that the PIHIVCT program would be cost-effective for cases younger than 50 years if the ceiling threshold of willing to pay equaled the per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP). However, this intervention would be cost-effective for all cases of 13-64 year old if the ceiling threshold equaled three times of GDP. Conclusion: The provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing program for OPD patients is more cost-effective than the current practice and should be implemented in health care setting in Thailand.
Vladimir Hiadlovsky, Jan Hunady, Marta Orviska and Peter Pisar
Background: The intensity of innovation could often be crucial for further economic development of the regions. Science and technology are often seen as the key factor supporting innovation in the regions. Furthermore, we can assume that higher intensity of research activities could lead to better economic performance.
Objectives: Research aims to examine the link between the economic performance of the region and the intensity of science and technology activities, proxied by the share of employees in science and technology.
Methods/Approach: The analysis is based on panel data for NUTS2 regions of the European Union (EU) member states. We conducted correlation analysis, panel Granger causality tests and regression analysis.
Results: Our results suggest the existence of a significant positive correlation between GDP per capita and the share of employees in science and technology. Moreover, the regions with a higher intensity of science and technology activities are mostly characterized by relatively low unemployment rates.
Conclusions: Research activities are positive correlated with regional GDP and negatively correlated with unemployment. However, increasing the share of employment in science and technology beyond a certain turning point would not lead to any further positive effects on regional economic performance.