H. Yousefi, N. Hassanzadeh, K. Behboudi and F. Beiki Firouzjahi
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Cho, H.S., Park, S.Y., Ryu, C.M., Kim, J.F., Kim, J.G. and Park, S.H. 2007. Interference of quorum sensing and virulence of the rice pathogen Burkholderia glumae by an engineered endophytic bacterium. Microbial Ecology , 60: 14–23.
Chung, E.J., Hossain, M.T., Khan, A., Kim, K.H., Jeon, C.O. and Chung, Y.R. 2015. Bacillus oryzicola sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from the root of rice with anti-microbial, plantgrowth promoting and systemic resistance-inducing activities in rice. The Plant Pathology
Mariola Bochniarz, Władysław Wawron, Marek Szczubiał, Piotr Brodzki, Tomasz Piech and Roland Kusy
The aim of the present study was to determine virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from subclinical mastitis in cows. The material consisted of 42 isolates of S. xylosus obtained from 276 samples of milk collected from cows with subclinical mastitis. The isolates were obtained from the udder secretions of 33 cows from farms in the Lublin region (Poland). S. xylosus was found in 15.2% of tested milk samples. The study did not reveal any macroscopic changes in the milk or symptoms in the cow’s body. The number of somatic cells in milk samples ranged from 245,000 to 416,000/ml of milk (on average 268,000/ml of milk). The ability to produce slime was observed in 42.9% of S. xylosus isolates. None of the tested isolates demonstrated the ability to produce protease or cause haemolysis. Five isolates of S. xylosus (11.9%) were classified to the methicillin-resistant group. The mecA gene was not found in any of these isolates. The enzyme β-lactamase was detected in 28.6% of S. xylosus isolates. The highest efficacy against S. xylosus was demonstrated for cephalosporin antibiotics: cefacetrile and cefoperazone (80.1% and 76.2% of susceptible isolates of S. xylosus, respectively). A significant quantity of isolates was resistant to streptomycin, linkomycin, penicillin and neomycin (approximately 10% of susceptible isolates of S. xylosus).
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Kageyama K., Asano T., 2009. Life cycle of Plasmodiophora brassicae. J. Plant Growth Regul. 28: 203-211.
Laszczak P., Szczep onek A., Wesołowska M., Michalik B., 2006. Comparison of virulence of Polish Plasmodiophora
Emilia Mróz, Monika Stępińska and Katarzyna Michalak
.E., Anderson J.W., Patterson R.A., Velleman S.G. (2008). Genetics of growth and reproduction in the turkey. 17. Changes in genetic parameters over forty generations of selection for increased sixteen-week body weight. Poultry Sci., 87: 1971-1979.
Rosario C.C., Lopez C.C., Tellez I.G., Navarro O.A., Anderson R.C., Eslava C.C. (2004). Serotyping and virulencegenes detection in Escherichia coli isolated from fertile and infertile eggs, dead-in-shell embryos, and chickens with yolk sac infection. Avian Diseases, 48: 791-802.
Soňa Šlosárková, Kateřina Nedbalcová, Jaroslav Bzdil, Petr Fleischer, Monika Zouharová, Stanislav Staněk, Eva Kašná and Alena Pechová
De Briyne N., Atkinson J., Pokludová L., Borriello S.P. (2014). Antibiotics used most commonly to treat animals in Europe. Vet. Rec., 175: 325.
de Jong A., El Garch F., Simjee S., Moyaert H., Rose M., Youala M., Siegwart E. (2018). Monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of udder pathogens recovered from cases of clinical mastitis in dairy cows across Europe: VetPath results. Vet. Microbiol., 213: 73–81.
Ding Y., Zhao J., He X., Li M., Guan H., Zhang Z., Li P. (2016). Antimicrobial resistance and virulence-related genes of Streptococcus obtained
E. Villar-Luna, O. Goméz-Rodriguez, R. I. Rojas-Martínez and E. Zavaleta-Mejía
carrying dominant genes conferring resistance to the three major species of RKNs on tomato ( Mi-1 ), potato ( Mh ), soybeans (Mir1) and pepper (N and Tabasco) ( Castagnone-Sereno, 2012 ). Meloidogyne enterolobii has been detected in Africa, Europe, USA, Central and South America ( Brito et al ., 2007 ; Moens et al., 2009 ; Castagnone-Sereno, 2012 ); and recently was first reported in Mexico parasitizing watermelon (Veracruz state) and tomato plants (Sinaloa state) ( Ramirez-Suarez et al ., 2014 ; Martinez et al ., 2015 ); however, its presence in other crops
Ewa Zastempowska, Jan Grajewski and Magdalena Twarużek
Skaug M.A., Helland I., Solvoll K., Saugstad O.D. (2001). Presence of ochratoxin A in human milk in relation to dietary intake. Food Addit. Contam., 18: 321–327.
Solomakos N., Govaris A., Angelidis A.S., Pournaras S., Burriel A.R., Kritas S.K., Papageorgiou D.K. (2009). Occurrence, virulencegenes and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli O157 isolated from raw bovine, caprine and ovine milk in Greece. Food Microbiol., 26: 865–871.
Sørensen L.K., Elbæk T.H. (2005). Determination of mycotoxins in bovine milk by liquid chromatography tandem mass
Rogério Parentoni Martins, Rosana Tidon and José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho
Abbate, L., Kada, S. & Lion, S. (2015) Beyond mortality: sterility as a neglected component of parasite virulence. PLoS Pathogenes, 11, 1-10.
Abrams, P.A. (2006) The effects of switching behavior on the evolutionary diversification of generalist consumers. American Naturalist, 168, 645-659.
Amos, W. & Hardwood, J. (1998) Factors affecting levels of genetic diversity in natural populations. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences, 353, 177
D. Tumialis, M. Łopieńska, A. Mazurkiewicz, E. Pezowicz and I. Skrzecz
species with traditional method remains difficult and in many instances only the analysis of DNA sequences from species in question can provide an accurate identification ( Liu & Berry, 1995 ). Internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) tandem repeat unit (ITS1 – 5.8S –ITS2) are required to species identification and in phylogenetic studies ( Nguyen et al ., 2001 ; Stock et al ., 2001 ; Hominick, 2002 ; Spiridonow et al ., 2004 ). The ITS region gene sequences has also been used to study among- and intra-population variability of Steinernema
essential oil mixture in healthy and Eimeria spp.-infected broilers. Poultry Sci., 93: 389–399.
Braat H., Van Den Brande J., Van Tol E., Hommes D., Peppelenbosch M., Van Deventer S. (2004). Lactobacillus rhamnosus induces peripheral hyporesponsiveness in stimulated CD4+ T cells via modulation of dendritic cell function. Am. J. Clinic. Nutr., 80: 1618–1625.
Brisbin J.T., Zhou H., Gong J., Sabour P., Akbari M.R., Haghighi H.R., Yu H., Clarke A., Sarson A.J., Sharif S. (2008). Gene expression profiling of chicken lymphoid cells after treatment with lactobacillus