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Open access

Mariusz Surma, Zbigniew Zdrojewski, Stanisław Peroń, Klaudiusz Jałoszyński and Bogdan Stępień

Abstract

Based on the exploitation research, the authors evaluated the possibilities of using the heat conducted through the side surface of the waste gases exhaust pipe of SB 1.5 drum drier for drying wood chips. According to the estimated calculations within one hour approximately 173 thousand of kJ of heat may be obtained from the external surface of the waste gases exhaust pipe with the height of 7 m and temperature of approximately 78°C which constitutes an equivalent of approximately 4 kilo of heating oil. In case the above mentioned heat source for drying wood chips in SPA 20 silo with a volume of 6800 kilo within 50% to 20% humidity is used, one may expect that the drying time will be approximately 100 hours.

Open access

Miklós Gulyás, Márta Fuchs, István Kocsis and György Füleky

Abstract

The application of biochars to improve soils and to mitigate global climate change is a popular research area all over the world, although it is not a new topic. In our study, wood chips char (BC) and animal bone char (ABC) were applied. The pot experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions. 2 grams of rye-grass (Lolium perenne) were seeded into each pot. The following various soil parameters were measured: pH (KCl), AL-P2O5, AL-K2O, total water soluble salt content and organic matter content. The measured parameters from the plant samples were: total-P, total-K and micronutrients. Results show that the negative or positive effect of pyrolysis solids cannot be determined clearly, further experiments are needed.

Open access

Milan Oravec and Marián Slamka

Abstract

The aim of this work was to investigate the energy intensity of the fuel wood chips production on unused agricultural land. The unused agricultural land, overgrown with forest trees, also called white areas, is the result of the end of the traditional intensive management of agricultural land by the natural succession of forest stands and pioneers’ wood species on the borders of forest and non-forest land. These stands are advantageously localized due to previous method of the land utilization, accessible and therefore very interesting from the point of view of obtaining fuel dendromass. The logging and subsequent dendromass processing was carried out for the purpose of further land use as pasture land and also for the production of fuel wood chips and their subsequent sale to the end user. With the utilization of technology chain saw-forwarder-chipper, the energy intensity of each operation, expressed in terms of the amount of fuel consumed per unit of produced wood fuel, was determined. The share of energy consumed in the energy value of the harvested tree dendromass in the evaluated sites ranged from 0.43 to 0.62%, approximately 0.64 to 0.88% and the chipping 0.42 to 0.54%. The total amount of energy consumed after calculation the chipper transfers to an average distance of 180 km was within 1.46 to 2.11%. The average weight of the harvested trees caused the biggest impact on the energy intensity of the production process.

Open access

Hana Věžníková, Michaela Perďochová and Martina Uhrová

Abstract

Biofuels are stored in large quantities and may be susceptible to self-ignition. The possible methods of indication of temperature increase include the analysis of the gaseous products of heating where concentrations of certain gases may increase with increasing temperature. Gas release is also affected by the moisture of the material given that the moisture level changes surface accessibility for oxygen on the one side and serves as a catalyst of the oxidation reactions on the other. The present project analysed the effect of temperature and moisture on gaseous products of heating of wood chips, one of frequently used biofuels, with the aim to determine a suitable gaseous indicator of beginning self-ignition.

Open access

Kamil Krzysztof Roman and Adam Świętochowski

Abstract

The study aims to measure the wood chips flow during the briquetting process by the X-ray image analysis. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) constituted the used feedstock that has been previously divided, according to the standard, into four (>1.0; 1.1-4.0; 4.1-8.0; 8.1-16.0 mm) groups of fraction. Examination of the X-ray image allows description of the movement of the wood fractions flow after the briquetting process. The correlations between the vertical axis and scattering plane factors were estimated. The correlation coefficient was 0.973 and was almost complete. The calculations were made for the areas of deviations (SD) and the area of scattering planes (DPS). Particular flow irregularities were determined for deviations ranges of individual groups of fractions and were (>1.0)=3.04; (1.1-4.0)=4.08; (4.1-8.0)=6.33 and (8.1-16.0)=7.33 cm2, and for scattering planes they were accordingly e (>1.0)=0.32; (1.1-4.0)=0.72; (4.1-8.0)=0.97 and (8.1-16.0)=1.29 cm2.

Open access

Jevgenijs Selivanovs, Dagnija Blumberga, Jelena Ziemele, Andra Blumberga and Aiga Barisa

Abstract

This paper presents results of experimental research on wood chips and sawdust drying in a rotary dryer. Empirical models for the assessment of two dependent parameters of the drying process were created based on the results of experimental data.

The mathematical description of the relationship between the independent variable - reduced sawdust moisture content - and dependent variable - specific fuel consumption - is represented by a linear equation.

Open access

Edgars Vigants, Dagnija Blumberga and Ivars Veidenbergs

Climate Technology in a Wood Chips Boiler House

One of the innovative solutions of climate technologies is a pilot project relating to the condenser of fuel combustion products which is installed at a chips-fuelled boiler house in the Ludza city. A commercial experiment with the use of a gas condenser has been run at a boiler-house. An empirical model has been obtained, that describes the relation between the specific greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and the temperature difference of irrigation liquid & condensate mixture.

Open access

Zsuzsanna Horváth, Béla Marosvölgyi, Christine Idler, Ralf Pecenka and Hannes Lenz

Abstract -

There are several problems in storing wood chips freshly harvested from short rotation plantations, which result in quality losses as well as in dry matter and energy losses. The factors influencing the degradation of raw material are examined in this paper with special focus on fungal development. An excessive growth of fungi is connected to dry matter losses and also to an increased health risk during raw material handling.

The following factors were measured during 6 months storage of poplar wood chips depending on particle size: box temperature, moisture content, pH-value, appearance of fungi in the storage and the concentration of fungal particles in the air. The results show a close connection between particle size, temperature and attack of fungi. During the storage mesophilic and termophilic species of the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Mucor and Penicillium appeared. The concentration of fungal particles is the highest for fine chips and decreases in bigger particles. There was a special focus on the investigation of the properties of coarse chips (G 50), which represent a good compromise between handling, storage losses and health risk due to fungal development.