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Jānis Kleperis, Biruta Sloka, Justs Dimants, Ilze Dimanta and Jānis Kleperis

Abstract

The analysis of the results of long-term air quality monitoring in Riga is presented, which shows that in city centre throughout the measurement time (2004-2014) according to the guidelines defined by the European Union directives and Latvian laws the limits of small particles PM10 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are exceeded. From the nature of appearance of pollution and from the research of morphology and composition of fine dust particles it was concluded that in the city centre where the monitoring was performed the main air pollutants are caused by internal combustion engine vehicles. The measures to reduce air pollution performed by two Action Programs (2004-2009; 2011-2015) of the City Council showed that there were only two possible ways to improve air quality in urban environment ‒ to decrease the number of traffic units and/or to decrease exhaust emissions from vehicles.

From the analysis of energy consumption and resources used for it the conclusion was drawn that Latvia is dependent on fossil fuel import, especially in traffic sector (99 %). A new trend has been observed in Latvia ‒ the type of cars is changing: the number of gasoline cars rapidly decreases and number of diesel cars is growing. Both fuels in exhaust gases of second-hand cars are giving high emissions of fine particles (soot) and nitrogen oxides as compared with new cars; 72 % of cars on the roads of Latvia are more than 13 years old. The switch to bio-diesel can improve Latvian statistics according to CO2 reduction target for 2020 but not the concentration of PM10 and NO2 on streets with dense traffic.

Therefore, to improve air quality in urban environment and simultaneously reduce the dependence of Latvia from fossil fuel import, a scenario is proposed for the changeover to zero-carbon technologies in transport and energy production. Hydrogen is analyzed from the point of view of availability of resources and commercialized technologies. The research of the public opinion was done because there is little awareness in society about hydrogen as energy carrier and simultaneously as fuel.

Open access

Ivan Beloev, Katerina Gabrovska-Evstatieva and Boris Evstatiev

Abstract

This paper presents a new approach for reducing the CO2 emissions in the transport sector based on emission compensation. A cost-benefit analysis method of investments in photovoltaic parks at petrol stations is used, which accounts for all the initial investments and maintenance costs in terms of expenses. The benefits are divided into financial and ecological. The method has been implemented in the specialised cost-benefit analysis tool, and an analysis has been performed for the city of Ruse, Bulgaria. Risk analysis on the influence of the main risk factors - the price of conventional energy and the buying price of energy from renewable energy sources is also performed. The results showed that investments in photovoltaic parks at petrol stations could pay off within 6 to 9 years in the more likely scenarios. The investment could reduce the CO2 emissions, related to the petrol station, by 10% to 37% depending on the scenario and the criterion used.