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Michal Kvasnička and Monika Szalaiová

Abstract

The paper presents the results of the first study exploring what factors influence tipping in restaurants in the Czech Republic. It shows that the tipping norm evolved here into a form that has some features similar to the tipping norms known in the USA, Canada, and Israel, but there are also striking differences. As in the three countries, the gratuity increases with the bill size but the gratuity as percentage of the bill is much lower here. The bill size explains here a lower part of the gratuity variability too. Also, the service quality results in customers being more generous with their tips, and though the increase in gratuity seems to be small, it rises with a group size. Strikingly, the regular patrons tip significantly less in the Czech Republic and they stiff more often. This supports the hypothesis that the relationship between the customer frequency and the gratuity size is an artifact of a missing variable, and the regular patrons tip differently because they belong to a different social group than occasional customers. Also, the customers paying by card stiff more often here and the interaction between the amount on the bill and use of payment card is statistically insignificant. The group size lowers the percentage gratuity, which supports the diffusion of the responsibility hypothesis. There are differences between genders: Male customers leave bigger tips than female customers, and female waitresses earn more than their male colleagues. The time spent at the table, consumption of alcoholic beverage, and smoking do not change the gratuity size but it may be affected by the weather conditions. The customers tip less and stiff more often when they order a lunch special. They round the total expenditures, not the gratuities, which creates the magnitude effect.

Open access

Filip Chuchma and Hana Středová

Abstract

Pedologic-ecological estimation in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) means determination of land agronomic productivity and its economical pricing and is expressed as a five position numeral code and mapped as iso-lines. The first position of the code is the climatic region representing approximately the same conditions for agricultural plant growth and development. This climatic regionalization was based on the climatic data from 1901–1950. Currently, there is the need to update their existing zoning due to the technological progress of measurement and development of climate models including estimation of future climate. The aim of the paper is (i) to apply actual climatic data to climatic regionalization and (ii) to estimate what climatic conditions are relevant for actually valid climatic regions. The original methodology currently enables us to unequivocally classify only 17% of the entire territory of the Czech Republic (and 18% of Czech agricultural land). A substantial part of the territory does not fit neatly into individual climatic regions. Subsequently the actually valid ranges of climatic characteristics of individual climatic regions were determined. The GIS layers of individual climatic variables computed with data from 1961–2010 were one by one covered by GIS layers of individual climatic regions based on data from 1901–1950. Interval ranges of climatic region variables determined in this way are valid for the period 1961–2010. The upper limit of air temperature sum above 10 °C and annual air temperature in most of the climatic regions was significantly shifted up in 1961–2010. An increase in precipitation is noticeable in wet climatic regions. Moisture certainty in vegetation season and probability of dry vegetation are the most problematic in terms of Estimated Pedologic-Ecological Units (EPEU) climatic zoning. This should be taken into account when fixing the official soil price.

Open access

David Kryska

Abstract

The author, on the occasion of the tenth anniversary of most recent reforms of administrative judiciary in the Czech Republic and the Republic of Poland, compares the legislation of Czech and Polish administrative judiciary. The article is divided into three parts, the first two discuss the legislation in both countries. Constitutional foundations of the organization and the system of administrative judiciary are addressed there. Subsequently, the author deals separately with the legislation of lower levels of the system and the legislation of supreme administrative courts, focussing on judges and other professional staff and the structure of the courts. Both the parts are rounded by an interpretation of the instruments for unification of the judicature. The third part of the paper includes the final summary.

Open access

Ilona Kočvarová

Abstract

Introduction: The article focuses on the situation in the area of secondary education in the Czech Republic. Its aim is to reflect three topics: population reduction, unification of curriculum and diversification of financial support of secondary education in the Czech Republic in 2006 - 2016.

Methods: The results are underlined by available data from the national statistics. The data are collected annually and are accessible on the website of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. They contain the entire population of secondary schools, teachers and pupils. Analysis was provided with the use of SPSS, version 24.

Results: There is a reduction of vocational and apprentice schools, but at the same time we are increasing financial support to their fields of study. Under the 2004 law, each school has an individual school educational program, but realistically, we see that the curriculum at secondary school level of education rather standardises. On the labour market, we need graduates of vocational and apprentice schools, but we still strongly support grammar schools and other theoretically oriented schools, whose graduates are not motivated for manual professions.

Discussion: Closer analysis focused on reflection of selected trends in the area of secondary education is needed for the purposes of education policy and for planning future research studies in this area.

Limitations: Continuous development takes place in the field of education. All comparisons in the years 2006-2016 are therefore limited. The data were used in their original form, in some cases were not available and therefore they could not be included in the analysis.

Conclusions: Educational policy is very complicated, because education is difficult to control and it is based on freedom of access. Therefore, the most important target for the future is to stabilize the situation and be able to reflect maximum of factors influencing secondary education in our society. Although current trends clearly support lifelong learning and its unification, we should not forget the specific fields of apprentice and vocational schools, which are needed on the labour market.

Open access

Jiří Novosák, Jana Novosáková, Oldřich Hájek and Jiří Koleňák

Abstract

The purpose of the present paper is to find whether the spatial distribution of enterprise support policy funds meet the spatial objectives stated in Czech strategic documents related to enterprise support policy. Are more funds allocated in lagging regions, and does enterprise support policy contribute more to the convergence objective, or are more funds allocated in core regions, and does enterprise support policy contribute more to the competitiveness objective? These questions are answered by evaluating the Structural (and Cohesion) Fund (SF) expenditures that were allocated on operations categorised as part of enterprise support policy (2007-2013). The dependent variable relates to 206 regions, and SF expenditures are calculated for every inhabitant of a region. Moreover, two types of SF operation are distinguished: (a) innovationoriented operations; and (b) other enterprise support operations. Three explanatory variables are defined using Principal Components Analysis (PCA), and these components are understood as: (1) the social disadvantage of regions; (2) the innovation environment of regions; and (3) the quality of regional entrepreneurial environments. The associations between the dependent and explanatory variables are subsequently evaluated by methods of correlation and regression analysis. The findings provide some evidence for both the convergence and competitiveness objectives. Nevertheless, this evidence is rather limited due to a low spatial concentration of SF allocation, and the compensatory effect between the two thematic types of SF operations. Hence, while the quality of their innovation environment has a positive influence on regional SF allocation regardless of the thematic focus of SF operations, socially disadvantaged regions received more funds for SF operations which are not innovation-oriented. The capacity of potential beneficiaries to prepare and submit many project proposals for SF co-financing is the main reason for high or low SF allocation.

Open access

František Ochrana, Michal Plaček and Milan Jan Půček

Abstract

The article analyses the problems of strategic governance and strategic management of the Czechoslovak Government, as well as the Government of the Czech Republic in the years 1989-2016. It seeks the causes and factors that have caused the low levels of strategic governance and strategic management at the level of the ministries of the Czech Republic. It examines the problem from genetic and historical perspective, and from the organizational and human capacity to exercise strategic governance. The study is based on two pieces of empirical research within the ministries of the Czech Republic. It identifies the main cause of failure of strategic governance and strategic management at the level of the central government of the Czech Republic. These include, in particular, the persistent distrust of the ideas of strategic governance and strategic management held by the right-wing governments and the generally low capacity of governments of the Czech Republic to engage in strategic governance. The organizational structure of the central state administration lacks the strategic units that generate ideas for supporting strategic governance. The empirical research of the ministries of the Czech Republic also revealed that policy workers in Czech ministries dedicate a large proportion of their work time to operational and administrative activities at the expense of analytical and strategic activities. The changes require implementation of reforms within the public administration, which (among other things) will eliminate the existing causes and inhibiting factors regarding the lack of strategic governance in the Czech Republic.

Open access

Monika Jandová and Tomáš Paleta

Abstract

In this paper, the models of internal migration flows between regions (NUTS 3) in the Czech Republic in time series from 1991 to 2012 are tested. The paper aims to find out how size, distance and economic variables explain migration flows between Czech regions. Several versions of an extended gravity model were used for testing, where economic factors which are frequently mentioned in literature on migration were used as regressors (i.e. average wage, registered unemployment rate, job vacancies and job vacancies per applicant). Internal migration flow is the dependent variable. In comparison to the pure gravity model, the extending of models with the economic variables improves the results of the models only slightly. The results show that the highest explanatory value of migration is given by models with rates of the variables tested.

Open access

Petr Kladivo, Pavel Nováček, Jan Macháček and Jiří Teichmann

Abstract

The potential development of the Czech Republic is discussed in this paper by using the State of the Future Index (SOFI). This is the only index currently used worldwide that focuses not only on the present (unlike the Human Development Index and others), but also on the future development of opportunities and threats. The paper presents the computation of partial indices focusing economic, demographic, social and environmental factors, where the selection of indicators that enter the computations, including their weighting, is the outcome of a survey conducted among regional development and sustainability experts and academics.

Open access

Ana Perić

Abstract

The topic of brownfield regeneration has been the focus of planning debate for years. However, the aspect of institutional cooperation and strengthening the institutional capacity in order to cope with a complex task of brownfield regeneration is considered a challenge. This is particularly true for the post-socialist countries and, hence, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Serbia are chosen as the case studies of this research. By implementing a concise survey of both the institutions and policies related to the topic of brownfield regeneration in the selected countries, the research aims at determining the form, extent and nature of collaboration between different sectors, disciplines, and institutions. Based on such insights, it is finally possible to provide the recommendations for more effective institutional design within specific political and socio-economic context.

Open access

Erik Thorstensen, Ellen-Marie Forsberg, Anders Underthun, Pavel Danihelka and Jakub Řeháček

Abstract

This paper presents results from a study of Czech Local Action Groups (LAGs), focusing on gaining knowledge about their internally perceived legitimacy and their potential role in local adaptation to climate change. Former studies on the role of governance networks in climate change adaptation have suggested that these networks’ legitimacy are crucial for their success. In this article we provide an analytical framework that can be used to address different aspects of local governance networks which are important for their legitimacy and the way they are apt as instruments for climate change adaptation actions. We also present a survey among LAG members that provide empirical data that we discuss in the article. The framework and the data are discussed with reference to existing contributions in the intersection of legitimacy, governance networks and climate change adaptation. A specific aim is to provide research based recommendations for further improving LAGs as an adaptation instrument. In addition, knowledge is generated that will be interesting for further studies of similar local governance initiatives in the climate change adaptation context.