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Tatjana S. Sarenac-Vulovic, Mirjana A. Janicijevic Petrovic, Dejan D. Vulovic, Sladjana M. Pavlovic, Sladjana Simovic and Nemanja S. Zdravkovic


Objective: Th e aim of our study was to establish a correlation between pseudoexfoliation and its systemic manifestation.

Findings: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is an agerelated systemic disorder that leads to the overproduction and accumulation of the pseudoexfoliated materials in the visceral organs and in the eye. Many vascular diseases are closely related with pseudoexfoliation manifestations. Our results indicated that there were no statistically significant diff erences (p>0.05) among patients regarding the presence of hypertension in all groups: PEX glaucoma - 45% (9 patients); PEX syndrome- 40% (8 patients); and control groups- 35% (7 patients). Ischemic heart disease was statistically significant present in the sPEX syndrome- 20% (5 patients) and PEX glaucoma- 25% (5 patients) patient groupss, in comparison with those of the control group-10%, (p<0.05). Aortic aneurism was statistically significant present in patients with PEX (syndrome-5% or glaucoma-15%), compared to those in the control group, which included no patients with aneurisms, (p<0.05). Our results indicated that a statistically significant number of patients with aneurism were in the group of patients who developed PEX glaucoma (p<0.05). Cerebrovascular diseases were detected in all groups of patients, but a significant decrease in this metric was noted in the control group- 5% (2 patients), compared with patients with PEX syndrome- 15% and PEX glaucoma-25%, (p<0.05). Hearing loss, as a concomitant sign of PEX manifestation, was recorded in all patients, but in the group with PEX (syndrome-55% or glaucoma-75%), these results showed a statistically significant increase (p<0.05) in comparison with those of patients in the control group (10%). Among the patients with PEX (syndrome and glaucoma), there were no statistically significant diff erences in the selected categories of systemic manifestations (p<0.05). Th is result indicates that the main risk for systemic manifestation is the presence of PEX and that other ocular and vascular complications are, in fact, consequences of PEX.

Conclusion: Pseudoexfoliation is strongly related to systemic vascular disturbances. A detailed examination of patients with PEX by specialists in internal disease or by neurologists should be performed. Such recommended examinations can be helpful in the prevention of diff erent vascular diseasess among patients with PEX, especially atthose in the early stages.

Open access

Lilika Zvezdanović, Vidosava Đorđević, Vladan Ćosić, Tatjana Cvetković, Slavica Kundalić and Aleksandra Stanković

The Investigation of Cytokines and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Numerous factors can influence the onset of SLE and development of some clinical disease manifestations with various organ involvements and occurrence of characteristic symptoms and disease signs. This paper studies the balance between proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines, investigates the presence of oxidative stress measuring certain prooxidative factors and determines the activation of antioxidative protection pathways aiming to establish possible correlations between the studied parameters. ELISA, enzymatic spectrophotometry and colorimetric methods were used to determine the above-mentioned parameters. The results obtained indicate that disturbed pro/antioxidative status is associated with the change of antioxidative factors, with the fall od SOD activity and increase of GPx and CAT activity in the erythrocytes of all studied groups of patients. At the same time, the cytokine production was altered, not only compared to the healthy control samples, but also in various clinical disease manifestations. Altered relationships of pro and antiinflammatory cytokines and the consequential disorders of other studied systems provide us with useful strategic targets for diagnostic monitoring and possible therapeutic interventions in SLE patients.

Open access

Bing Liu


Oral lesions are highly correlated with the occurrence and development of many diseases. In addition, the treatment of systemic diseases may aggravate oral focal infections, affect the life quality of patients, interfere with the treatment of systemic diseases, and even cause systemic infection in serious cases. Treatment strategies for systemic diseases may induce or aggravate oral local lesion infections. In specific, administration of oral antiepileptic drugs and immunosuppressive drugs may induce gingivitis, radiotherapy or chemotherapy for malignant tumors may cause oral mucositis, long-term use of bisphosphonates for inhibition of tumor bone metastasis or prevention of osteoporosis may cause osteonecrosis of the jaw, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may cause oral rejection reactions.

Open access

Marta Monica Astiz Gassó, Marcelo Lovisolo and Analia Perelló


The effect of loose kernel smut fungus Sporisorium cruentum on Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass) was investigated in vitro and in greenhouse experiments. Smut infection induced a decrease in the dry matter of rhizomes and aerial vegetative parts of the plants evaluated. Moreover, the diseased plants showed a lower height than controls. The infection resulted in multiple smutted buds that caused small panicles infected with the fungus. In addition, changes were observed in the structural morphology of the host. Leaf tissue sections showed hyphae degrading chloroplasts and vascular bundles colonized by the fungus. Subsequently, cells collapsed and widespread necrosis was observed as a symptom of the disease. The pathogen did not colonize the gynoecium of Sorghum plants until the tassel was fully developed. The sporulation process of the fungus led to a total disintegration of anthers and tissues. When panicles were inspected before emergence, fungal hyphae were observed on floral primord. Histological sections of panicles showed fungal hyphae located in the parenchyma tissue and the nodal area. Infection occurred in the floral primordium before the tassel had fully developed and emerged from the flag leaf. Grains were replaced by sori surrounded by a thin membrane that usually was broken before or after the emergence of the panicle. The results, together with the significant decrease of the dry matter of rhizomes and seeds of S. halepense, suggest that S. cruentum could be considered as a potential biocontrol agent in the integrated management of this weed.