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Wojciech Dziemianowicz and Klaudia Peszat

Abstract

The article presents the process and effects of the emergence of smart specialisations in the Silesian and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeships. The starting point is the analysis of smart specialisations in the context of the development theories, which is followed by a discussion of the specialisations of the two voivodeships. This leads to the establishment of several doubts concerning the future situation of the peripheral region presented in the article.

Open access

Jana Vlčková, Nikola Kaspříková and Markéta Vlčková

Abstract

The level of technological specialisation in the regions of Germany is assessed in this paper, as well as how such specialisation has evolved over time. Further, in three selected regions (Munich, Düsseldorf and Oberes Elbtal/Osterzgebirge), the knowledge space is explored in detail and compared to existing smart specialisation strategies. Average relatedness and knowledge space based upon EPO patent applications are used to measure the specialisation and technology trajectories of the German regions. Between three periods 1988–1992, 1998–2002 and 2008–2012, the specialisation of Germany based on EPO patent applications increased by 10%, despite a decline in many regions. Machinery and transportation industries have increased their significance. The assessment of regional smart specialisation strategies in the three German states shows that the methodology in terms of the identification of prospective industries is largely variegated and insufficiently developed. More attention should also be given to the choice of an appropriate geographical level of aggregation for analysis. Knowledge relatedness and knowledge complexity could be used as methodological tools for selecting prospective industries in smart specialisation strategies.

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Wojciech Dziemianowicz

Abstract

Between 1989 and 2014, the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship (one of the poorest regions in the European Union) was subjected to a number of external stimuli. However, not only has its position in the ranking of provinces failed to improve - it has actually worsened. Despite this, positive adaptive changes have occurred in the region, although they are limited in scope. The attitude of peripheral regions towards external stimuli can be quite reactive, as seen in the case of Warmia and Masuria. It can be assumed that the province’s smart specialisations (water economics, high-quality food, and wood and furniture) will contribute to further quality in the economic structure of the region, but it will not necessarily improve its position in relation to other regions in Poland.

Open access

Anna Dąbrowska

Abstract

The natural environment, as a source of natural resources, has long been perceived as being a factor in determining the development of many states and regions, especially less developed areas. The main research question in this article is what role is played by natural resources and traditional industry sectors based on natural resources (milk production and tourism), in the process of establishing a competitive advantage for Podlaskie Voivodeship, which is one of the less developed regions in Poland. The results of the research reveal weaknesses that are inherent in earlier ways of thinking about these industries and, at the same time, emphasise the importance of making use of natural resources in an integrated way and combining them with new technologies.

Open access

Vladislav Čadil

Smart specialisation is a main pillar of the Europe 2020 strategy, which creates the basic strategic framework for individual EU policies including the cohesion policy and the research, development and innovation policy for the new programming period. The concept can be defined as a discovery of national/regional strengths in the field of research, development and innovation. Its key characteristic is an accent on innovation and concentration of human and financial resources allocated to research and development into several globally competitive fields, which can become a basis for the next economic growth and prosperity. Each region or state should prepare new innovation strategies based on smart specialisation since such strategies are conditionality for negotiation of new operational programmes. Because the concept is relatively new in the Czech Republic, the article aims at introducing it on the basis of foreign literature and official EU documents, and discussing some problems that should be taken into account in designing the strategy.

Open access

Viktorija Šipilova, Inta Ostrovska, Elita Jermolajeva, Ludmila Aleksejeva and Dmitrijs Oļehnovičs

Abstract

One of the approaches to achieve sustainable development is based on smart specialization. Rural areas are of particular importance in ensuring sustainable development, the smart development of which largely determines the balanced sustainable development of a state as a whole. The present study reflects the quantitative and the qualitative assessment of sustainable development in the region of Latgale (Latvia) on the level of 19 districts; the assessment has been carried out on the basis of the concept of smart specialization. The assessment has been performed within the framework of the project 5.2 of the National Research Programme EKOSOC-LV. The quantitative assessment is based on scientific and practical experience taking into consideration the distinguishing features of the development of Latvian regions and districts, and it has resulted in the establishment of an integrated index (Smart Development Index), which comprises four dimensions - Resources, Population, Economy, and Management. The qualitative assessment is based on the views concerning the cornerstones of smart specialization and the factors influencing it expressed by experts from the state administration, business and scientific environment. Expert opinions have been collected by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. The results of the research might facilitate the understanding of the support measures of smart specialization and the opportunities for sustainable development in rural areas, taking into account the level of the regional socio-economic development and the rate of development, as well as regional differences on the level of districts. The example of Latgale has shown that a small number of people and a low rate of development in most of the region districts simultaneously create both the acute need for and a great challenge in the sphere of sustainable development. By contrast, as a result of both the quantitative and the qualitative assessment the population has been recognised to be the main driving force of the development of rural areas in Latgale region.

Open access

Gunnar Prause

Abstract

The concept of smart specialization as a policy approach for regional development through increased regional productivity and competitiveness in the European context is actively discussed (European Union, 2009; OECD, 2014). Meanwhile, smart specialization has found its way into EU cohesion policy as well as into the European Commission’s Innovation Union flagship programme.

In Eastern Europe, economic growth came to a sudden halt during the financial crisis in 2008/2009, leading to mass unemployment, economic decline and shrinking public spending. The economic downturn in Russia after 2008 was triggered by the outflow of capital and avoided large-scale social consequences.

The paper highlights the main conceptual aspects of the smart specialization approach in the European Union and its implications on future EU Eastern Innovation cooperation with a special focus on EU’s largest Eastern partner Russia.

Open access

Josu Takala, Daryna Shylina and Sara Tilabi

Abstract

Nowadays companies concern more about how to survive and extend their own business in future in their current marketplace. However, developing and prospering a region of the country is becoming more crucial question. Successful cooperation and partnership between different sectors of economy (for instance, between companies, public and academic sectors) leads to the flourishing and prosperity of the region and consequently of a country. European Commission established smart specialization platform, which is a strategic approach to economic development of a region. By defining and developing of vision, competitive advantages and strategic preferences, region will determine knowledge-based potential. The purpose of this paper is to assign and define the collaboration/relations existed, how strong these relations are and what the expectations are between 3 sectors of economy: public, academic and business. Area of carrying out this research is Ostrobothnia region, however, connections in other regions of Finland and internationally is also presented. There have been chosen 3 industrial peaks from Ostrobothnia region: Energy, Fur and Boat industrial peaks. Analysis is conducted by implementing two core methods: Sense & Respond (S&R) and Sustainable Competitive Advantage (SCA). The goal of this research is also to use S&R method so as to allocate efficiently resources, and to define competitive priorities in cooperation. The main results show that the most tight collaboration and partnership is observed between companies and companies in all around Finland and internationally. While concerning other relationships, companies expect to have tighter cooperation especially in Ostrobothnia and other regions of Finland.

Open access

Miroslav Ondrejovič and Stanislav Miertuš

Abstract

The paper presents main results and recommendations of the recent European Workshop dedicated to the evaluation of current state and prospects for Biotechnology with the attention to Central and European countries. The contribution of Biotechnology to the RIS3 strategy is also briefly presented. It is believed that there is still insufficient integration of research and innovation, especially in Central and Eastern European countries. Another problem is the weak interest and lack of mechanisms for the entry of potential investors into biotechnology capital-intensive areas. Series of proposals and recommendations coming from the Workshop on how to increase the regional cooperation in the field of Biotechnology is briefly described together with the potential role of international institutions (JRC-EC, CEI, ICGEB, EBTNA) in such cooperation.