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Open access

Alexandru Stoian

Abstract

Imposed by states in order to defend its own territory and national values during the time of crisis, mobilization of armed forces in a contemporary global context creates new challenges for the public authorities, designers of the national legal framework and for the military authorities. In this regard, extraordinary measures can be taken in political, economic, social, administrative, diplomatic, legal and military fields, planned and prepared in peacetime. The Romanian National Defense System consists of the forces intended for defense, the resources of the national defense and the territorial infrastructure and provides a stable foundation for all types of actions related to mobilization, as long as the procedures involved are implemented at a high level of efficiency

Open access

David Špaček and Eva Gatarik

Abstract

Although knowledge management has become the subject of an enormous quantity of articles and books in recent times, certain more problematic aspects of it remain neglected. Firstly, literature addressing knowledge management concentrates almost exclusively on business organizations and fails to provide details or recommendations adequate to effective application within the sphere of public administration. This holds especially true for Czech academic literature. Secondly, despite a reasonable number of articles on knowledge management in scientific journals, information about perceptions of knowledge-management activities, procedures and tools within organizations lacks detail. The purpose of this article is to investigate and summarize the activities, procedures and tools in use for dealing with knowledge within Czech self-governments and to discuss the main empirical findings. Although the quantitative survey herein does not provide fully representative data, it is still in a position to indicate that knowledge management in Czech public administration tends to be underdeveloped as well as undervalued.

Open access

Alina Shevchenko

Abstract

The article deals with revealing the essence and structure of Masters’ of Public Administration professional training in the USA. It has been concluded that Public Administration studies the realization of government policies and trains future public administrators for professional activity; is guided by political science and administrative law; aims to improve the justice, equality, security and efficiency of public services. It has been indicated that the MPA degree is dedicated for those willing to work in public sector. It has been found out that MPA programs are designed to develop the abilities, skills and methods specialists use to realize policies, programs and projects as well as to resolve crucial issues within their organization and/or in society. It has been stated that in the United States of America Master of Public Administration (MPA) and Master of Business Administration programs (MBA) are quite similar, however, have certain differences. It has been defined that the MPA program focuses on different ethical and sociological criteria secondary for business administrators. Simultaneously MPA programs encompass economy courses to supply students with knowledge of microeconomic and macroeconomic issues. It has been specified that MPA programs are built on a range of core competencies defined by the Network of Schools of Public Policy, Affairs, and Administration (NASPAA). The list of the core competencies (to lead and manage in public governance; to participate in and contribute to the public policy progress; to analyze, synthesize, think critically, solve problems and make decisions; to articulate and apply a public service perspective; to communicate and interact productively with a diverse and changing workforce and citizenry) and their detailed characteristics have been presented. It has been identified that cultural competency of future public administrators has become an essential constituent of public affairs curricula. It has been concluded that the above-mentioned positive aspects of the experience may be used to improve future public administrators’ professional training in Ukraine.

Open access

Miloslav Šašek

Abstract

The contribution mainly focuses on monitoring of the population development in the Czech Republic, particularly at the micro-regional level. It monitors development of the natural population change, migration, and overall population development in two monitored periods, and conducts SO ORP typology based on this development with respect to the natural population change, migration, and overall increase. Today, the migration in the developed regions is the determinative element of the population development. To put it simply, the determinative division of the migration population development is into two units (east and west zone, Moravia and Bohemia), where Moravia has negative migration and Bohemia sees positive migration; however, there are significant differences in the middle of the units where Brno metropolitan area has highly positive migration, especially from the rest of Moravia and Silesia, and on the contrary, Karlovy Vary region sees significantly negative migration; over the last years, the negative migration has been relatively higher compared to Moravia-Silesia Region. The micro-regions at SO ORP level assist us in distinguishing of continuous territories with either positive or negative population development.

Open access

Marianna Dobó

Abstract

The judgement of self-governmental operation and the evaluation of providing public services have been focused on since the democratic transformation. By the 1st of January 2012 (CXCIX/2011. and CLXXXIX/2011. law) amendment of the Hungarian on civil servants, the civil servants work performance evaluation system has been introduced with the consideration of the principles of the civil servants carrier programme. The purposes of this evaluation system are made in order to grow the workers management efficiency in the field of public service, and also to improve their work standards.

Open access

Janez Stare and Maja Klun

Abstract

In consideration of the fact that public administrations worldwide face a number of challenges, many governments are dedicated to improving the ethical climate in public administrations. The same issue is also the focus of the attention of many transnational associations. The basic goal is to ensure the development of comparable ethical climates, ethical behaviour in different public administrations and to develop comparable, suitable ethics infrastructures to enable this. Modern public administrations must bring ethical conduct to the fore and resist unethical behaviour. There are different ideas on how to build ethics infrastructures in public administrations, and examples of good practice that could facilitate the development of such infrastructures are found in the public and private sectors of different countries. In this paper, we connect ethics infrastructures and ethical climates. The evaluation of Slovenia’s ethics infrastructures is based on the framework prepared by the OECD, using its questionnaire developed by Victor and Cullen. The results show that there is no general relationship between ethics infrastructures and ethical climates in public administrations. Nevertheless, some determinants of ethics infrastructures correlate to a high degree to the ethical climate, the strongest impact on ethics climates being the ethical infrastructure’s determinant “public involvement and scrutiny”.

Open access

Rustamjon Urinboyev

Law, Social Norms and Welfare as Means of Public Administration: Case Study of Mahalla Institutions in Uzbekistan

Despite numerous challenges, since its independence, Uzbekistan, with the exception of the May 2005 Andijan events, has enjoyed extraordinary political stability and not recorded any considerable cases of interethnic or interfaith conflict, regime change or civil war, whereas neighboring Kyrgyzstan, labeled an "island of democracy" by the Western world, has experienced numerous conflicts and chaos, ranging from "color revolutions" to ethnic conflict. However, for understanding Uzbekistan's ability to cope with internal and external challenges, little recourse is made to the post-independence discourse on public administration known as "mahalla reforms". In spite of the significant existing body of literature on the mahalla, there has been little systematic scholarly investigation of the role of mahalla in maintaining political stability and security in Uzbekistan. Previous studies did not provide an account of how the law, social norms and welfare come to interplay in the mahalla system and how this influences the public administration developments in Uzbekistan. This paper begins to redress this lacuna by analyzing public-administration reforms in post-independence Uzbekistan, namely mahalla reforms, with an effort to show how political and social stability is established through mahalla, and to what extent those reforms have affected the position of individuals vis-à-vis the public-administration system. In undertaking this task, the paper employs three theoretical concepts: the theory of norms, the welfare-pentagon model and the theory of social control. In this paper, I argue that public-administration reforms since 1991 have transformed mahalla into a comprehensive system of social control; and therefore, mahalla can be places of democratic involvement or sites of authoritarianism in Uzbekistan.

Open access

Andreja Kvas, Janko Seljak and Janez Stare

Abstract

Background and Purpose: The main purpose behind the formation of leadership competency models must be the improvement of leadership. A competency model should serve as one of the tools for selecting the most suitable leaders, appraising their work, assessing training needs and preparing programmes of functional and formal education. The objective of this research is to assess the training needs of leaders in health care. A comparison of leadership competency models between different professional groups should serve as one of the tools with which to assess the training needs of various levels of leaders. Design/Methodology/Approach: A descriptive study using a survey design was conducted on 141 nurse leaders in Slovenia. Respondents indicated to what extent each of 95 different behaviours was characteristic of a person at their leadership level. Results: The most important competence dimensions (groups of behaviours) for leaders in health care are (1) at the first - top leadership level: strategic thinking, openness to change and responsibility; (2) for leaders at the second - middle leadership level: relations with co-workers, animation, resistance to stress; and (3) for leaders at the third leadership level: realisation skills, execution of procedures, communication. Training needs assessments were done for three leadership levels in nursing care. Conclusions: The greatest need for training of nurse leaders can be observed at the third leadership level. Special training programmes should be organised in the competency areas of realisation skills, execution of procedures, communication, education and ethics

Open access

Adrian-Mihai Zaharia-Rădulescu and Ioan Radu

Abstract

The Digital Agenda for Europe 2020 has more objectives from increasing the participation of its citizens and consumers in the digital society to creating a fully interconnected society. These objectives can be supported through a high degree of digitization achieved at public administration level and an increased performance in delivering public services. Cloud computing is one of the ICT areas with a fast growth in the last years that presents a big promise for achieving the objectives of the Digital Agenda for Europe 2020. This paper aims to present what cloud computing is and how it can help the public administration to increase its performance. From Infrastructure as a Service continuing with Platform as a Service and moving up to Software as a Service each level of cloud computing is presented in here with its strong and weak points and how it is suitable for a given use case in public administration. The challenges and the risks of moving to cloud and the differences between public, private and hybrid cloud are also presented in the paper. The research done by the author is both theoretical and literature review and combines knowledge from different areas. An analysis and examples of cloud computing approach and implementation in several European Union countries are presented in this paper to facilitate the understanding of the subject. Cloud computing can help public administration to decrease costs, standardize services in different locations, integrate public resources and provide a higher transparency in the government act.

Open access

Stanisław Mazur, Michał Możdżeń and Marek Oramus

Abstract

The article focuses on the problem of the civil service’s dependence on its political superiors in Poland in 1996–2017. It aims to analyse the motivations of politicians responsible for civil service reforms and to assess the impact of these reforms on the effectiveness of the corps’ functioning. The authors conceptualise the problem of politicisation of the civil service by referring to the theory of politicisation adding an extra dimension of political ideas and institutions as an important factor of change in Poland’s public administration system. The article describes the stages of civil service reform in Poland over the last twenty years, taking into account the political context, the most important postulated changes and the associated controversies with reference to the concepts outlined in the theoretical part. The study also comprises a relevant literature review based on a number of sources, including the reports published by the Head of the Civil Service in Poland, international databases (including Quality of Government) and specialist reports with a particular emphasis on research devoted to Central Europe. The findings paint a multi-layered and nuanced picture of the evolution of the Polish civil service and its strong associations with the issue of the so-called “unfinished transformation”. In addition the article confirms that both the instrumentalisation of institutions by the “camp” of political opportunists and their formal, radical reconstruction by the “ideological contrarians” resulting in the centralisation of power around the ruling parties have had a negative effect on the quality of civil service functioning in Poland.