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Positive Interventions in the Therapy of Schizophrenia Patients

Abstract

Positive psychology directs its research interests primarily to healthy people. The most important goal is to build a positive attitude towards yourself and the surrounding world. Recently, positive psychology has set a new area of research interest, which is clinical psychology. In recent years, several positive psychotherapy programs have been developed for people with schizophrenia experience. The article presents the latest trends in positive psychotherapy for people with schizophrenia. They involve taking into account the individual differences of each patient and the specificity of his / her psychopathology. As far as the therapeutic goals are concerned, there are interventions focused on strategies for enhancing positive emotions and wellbeing or the method of activating the strengths of character. Taking into account the methods of therapeutic work, they can be divided into training methods or those of the behavioral-cognitive psychotherapy as well as those that take into account the various aspects of meditation. The article presents the distribution of therapeutic programs in terms of the range of therapeutic goals in which the most important are: intensification of positive experiences, building of strengths of character and well-being. Therapeutic programs have been shown to focus not only on breaking down negative attitudes towards one’s own illness and life, but also on those that try to deal with the unsolved schizophrenia problem - negative symptoms.

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How Czech supervisors engage in the supervisory process on sexual attraction and strategies used to supervise sexual attraction in the work of supervisees

Abstract

Our study investigated how Czech supervisors understand, engage with and supervise therapists in handling sexual attraction. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 13 volunteers in the Czech Republic. Transcripts were analysed using constructivist grounded theory (GT). Findings show that in reflecting on their experience as supervisors, participants stepped into their experience as therapists first. Data shows various factors mediating and influencing the supervision process: the historical and political impact of sexual tabooism and sexual attraction in training and practice; supervisors’ personal experience of sexual attraction provoked shame; gender and trust impact on which supervisor to choose; male and female differences in supervisory needs; and a clear contract facilitates disclosure of sexual attraction.

Open access
The Present Moment and Giving Oneself as a Gift

Abstract

The contemporary individual is immersed in a reality characterized by a rapid sequence of stimuli and actions and he is often unable to fully live the present moment.

Several authors in the field of psychology have discussed on the individual’s ability to live his own experience in the present moment, each highlighting some peculiar aspects and potential of this concept within their models.

The major aim of the present article is to discuss these different psychological perspectives moving from more traditional models such ad Gestalt psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis to contemporary approaches such as Mindfulness-based Cognitive therapy (Kabat-Zinn) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (Hayes), and to highlight some points of convergence between such approaches and Chiara Lubich’s thought. In fact Lubich investigated the concept of the present moment from a spiritual perspective, drawing on the life experience inspired by the charisma of unity.

Open access
Jacob Levy Moreno’s Psychodrama As a Work Technique For Treating Patients in Group and Individual Psychotherapy

Abstract

Introduction. The basic purpose of this article is to present Jacob Levy Moreno’s psychodrama method as the psychotherapeutic technique useful in work with patients during individual and group psychotherapy.

Material and Method: The author presents the analysis of case studies of patients treated in individual and group psychotherapy. He instances the examples of psychodramatic work on the stage as well as monodramatic and reports their importance in the process of patient psychotherapy. He discusses the effects of these act ivities in the context of changes in the emotional and interpersonal functioning of patients.

Results: The given examples of monodrama and psychodramatic works illustrate the mechanisms of the changes offered by the method, e.g. insight, abreaction, acceptance of internal impulses, confrontation with the feelings of other people, training of alternative behaviors. In the article one can follow each subsequent step of analyzing intrapsychic conflicts of patients, which, thanks to the play on the stage, can be named and experienced by them.

Conclusions: Psychodrama, used in the psychotherapeutic work of the group and in individual work with the patient (in the form of a monodrama), gives great opportunities to broaden the insight of the patient into very complicated internal mechanisms of conflicts and deficits. Psychotherapist - leader encourages patients to be creative and to spontaneous development of their blocked personality elements. The specificity of psychodrama is a relatively quick resolution of many years of ongoing conflict and permanent reparation of traumatic experiences, even from early childhood.

Open access
Centrality of the Concept of Representation in Sociotherapy

Abstract

“Representation” is a relevant concept in many scientific disciplines, from linguistics to social psychology, but in sociotherapy, a branch of sociology dedicated to the intervention on individuals in situations of addiction or hardship of social origin, it becomes absolutely central. There are different approaches to sociotherapy, from the original one of Rudolf Steiner (1924), to those of Marshal Edelson (1970) and John Stuart Whiteley (1986), but it is the more recent one of Leonardo Benvenuti (2002) to fully integrate the concepts of “culture,” “discourse” and “representation.” This author, underlining the limited range of psychoanalysis, focuses his idea of therapy both on “culture,” interpreted as identification of the peculiar form of psychological organization of the patient as precondition to any intervention, and on “discourse” as method of interaction based on a dialogue supported by the phenomenological tool of “empathy.” The whole dialogue between the therapist and the patient is aimed to reach a complete knowledge of the system of “representations” of the latter. Benvenuti defines a “representation” as the combination of a cognitive element, the “image,” and an affective element, the “affective investment.” He looks for the roots of hardship or addiction in one or more “representations” of the patient, and this is the reason why they always must be unveiled and investigated. Only the successful intervention of the therapist on these representations and their correction in a desirable way may ensure the patient the acquisition of the needed level of autonomy and therefore the success of therapy.

Open access
Dinesh Bhugra: a personal history of Psychiatry

Abstract

In the past 40 years, the practice of psychiatry has changed dramatically from asylums to community care to personalized home-based treatments. The personal history of working in various settings and changing NHS indicates that an ability to change one’s clinical practice is a critical skill. Being a migrant and an International Medical Graduate brings with it certain specific challenges. Personal histories provide a very specific account that is inherently incomplete and perhaps biased, but personal accounts also give history a tinge that academic accounts cannot. In this account, changes in the NHS have been discussed with regards to changes in clinical care of patients with psychiatric disorders as well as research and training.

Open access
Project Inner Brick - Colorful Plastic Bricks in Psychotherapy - An Introduction to Methodology

Abstract

PIB is a research project pertaining to the psychotherapeutic potential of Lego bricks. This is based on Lego Group’s own method called Lego Seriousplay and Eric Berne's transactional analysis as a theoretical background. If we see it from the Lego’s aspect, our plan is a training like LSP. It is only alike because of the special application. We made a lot of modifications according to the original methodology. In this document we would like to present details of our research we have been working on for almost two years. The characteristics of our methodology will be illustrated, too.

Open access
Kleptomania in a 15-year-old boy with ADHD – a case report

Abstract

Aim: The aim of the study was 1) to report the case of a 15-year-old boy who developed kleptomania symptoms during methylphenidate treatment and 2) to review the available therapeutic options for kleptomania based on a literature search of Medline and Google Scholar databases (2000–2018).

Case report: For the past seven years a 15-year-old boy had participated in counselling at a psychological counselling centre because of school problems and upbringing difficulties, and had a five-year history of psychiatric treatment for ADHD. He was admitted to the Department of Psychiatry because of recurrent stealing episodes that occurred during methylphenidate treatment. During the hospitalization, the patient did not observe the therapeutic contract – he stole items from other patients. Pharmacotheraputic and psychotherapeutic treatment resulted in a partial improvement in impulsive behaviour. At discharge, he spoke critically of his previous conduct and expressed readiness to continue treatment in an outpatient setting.

Conclusions:

  1. Kleptomania has a very negative impact on a patient's overall well-being.
  2. In the reported case, kleptomania developed during methylphenidate treatment.
  3. Kleptomania should always be taken into account as a possible cause of stealing during a psychiatric examination, to avoid stigmatization of patients as criminals.
  4. Pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy focused on the development of strategies, which can help the patient to control the urge to steal, are important components of kleptomania treatment.

Open access
Neurobiology of Psychotherpeutic Relationship-New Perspectives

SUMMARY

Since the time of Freud’s “Project for psychology as natural science” in 1895, at the dawn of psychoanalysis as the theory and therapy, psychoanalysis and psychotherapy in general have been attempting to establish and develop their biological roots. Numerous external and internal limitations and resistances have been limiting and opposing this process for almost a century. The last two decades brought a significant change in this view, especially following the development of contemporary neuroimaging techniques with their dynamic and functional features and growing interest for mental processes on behalf of neuroscience. The aim of this paper was to review scientific articles on recent advances in the field of neurobiology of psychotherapy, especially neurobiological underpinnings of psychotherapeutic relationship, and point to the new perspectives this knowledge brings. Recent advances in neurobiology and psychotherapy research open the way for the integration of psychotherapy and neurobiology. With this regard, science could contribute to closing the mind-brain gap which has been artificially dividing a human being for centuries. An integrated field enables new scientific perspective for both disciplines with multilayered understanding of mind-brain functioning.

Open access
Characteristics of Patients Treated Psychoterapeutically in the Outpatient Clinical Setting

Summary

The influence of social changes in transitional country and transitional times, among other things, have made changes in the structure of the patients seeking psychotherapeutic treatment. However, there has not been any research studying characteristics of patients in psychotherapeutic treatment. The aim of our study was to establish socio-demographic, clinical and psychodynamic characteristics of patients psychotherapeutically treated in the outpatient clinical setting.

Our sample consisted of 61 non-psychotic patients, randomly selected by the method of consecutive admissions and treated with psychoanalytic psychotherapy in the outpatient clinical setting. The study was conducted from January 2009 to January 2012 at the Mental Health Clinic, Clinical Center Niš. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale and a Semi-structured interview for the Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis were used for collecting data.

Our results have shown that patients treated with psychotherapy in the outpatient clinical setting have specific socio-demographic, clinical and psychodynamic characteristics. They are young, post-adolescent individuals, mainly with the diagnosis personality disorder and co-morbidity, with a moderate level of structural integration and individuation vs. dependency as the main psychological conflict. We suggest a long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy as the treatment of choice for patients with presented clinical and psychodynamic characteristics and operationalized psychodynamic diagnostic system as a valuable tool for establishing treatment focus and treatment planning.

Open access