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Open access

Claudio O. Delang

Abstract

China is the most populated country in the world, but has relatively little fertile land, and even less water. Maintaining the quality of its agricultural land is of paramount importance if China wants to feed its very large and growing population. Yet, China is one of the countries with the largest amount of polluted soil. This paper looks at the causes and distribution of soil pollution in China. It first looks at the amount of organic and inorganic soil pollutants and their geographic distribution. It then looks at the causes of soil pollution, making the distinction between agricultural activities, industrial activities, and urbanization. Pollution from agricultural activities stems primarily from the excessive amounts of pesticides and fertilizers used on farmland, and is mainly located in the south, where most of the food is produced. Pollution from industrial activities is due to airborne industrial pollutants that fall on to the land, and is mainly located in the west of the country, where most manufacturing activities take place. Pollution from urbanization is mainly due to the very large amount of solid, liquid and gaseous waste generated in a small area with insufficient treatment facilities, and exhaust fumes from vehicles, and is located around the largest cities, or roads. The result is that one fifth of China’s farmland is polluted, and an area the size of Taiwan is so polluted that farming should not be allowed there at all.

Open access

Jozefína Pokrývková and Emília Micáková

Abstract

The results of imperfect knowledge of the natural environment’s basic laws show that the negative effects of our actions are manifested in most cases only belatedly, in forms such as: the loss of arable land, the extinction of rare species of plants and animals, the depletion of the ozone layer, the climate change, the deterioration of air quality, the acid rain, the worsening quality of surface and ground water, the surface loss of rainforests and many other negative aspects of our thoughtless actions. For the measurement of sulphur concentration, we chose locality surrounding the power plant Vojany, where we identified two locations for mounting our stands. The first place was the village Tušice, and the second one the area of AMS Leles. This is where we planted in alkaline strips in stands used for this purpose and by the sorption – cumulative method we evaluated concentrations of sulphur amount collected on the strips. In the period 2012–2014, we conducted experiments in regular 30-day intervals; we performed 104 analyses of filter plates using the sorption-cumulative method. The current position of some habitats infestation causes damage to various parts of environment. Therefore, we consider it relevant to continue in monitoring this affliction and quantifying the extent of its negative effects. The proposed procedure with the possibility of a retrospective determination of concentrations of SO2 using mathematical modelling can also be used for the determination of old burdens.

Open access

Mariana Marselina and Muhamad Burhanudin

Abstract

Saguling Reservoir has a potential to be used as a raw water supply for Bandung Metropolitan Area (BMA), with the discharge of 1.622 dm·s−1. However, further studies are needed to ensure that the water quality is in accordance with the government regulations. This study shows that the reservoir’s P concentration was 315.0 mg·m−3 on average in 1999–2013. This value only meets the class III of government standards of water quality for the cultivation of freshwater fish, livestock, and to irrigate landscaping, but does not belong to the class I standard of 200 mg·m−3 for drinking water. The total-P concentration in wet, normal, and dry years was 796.3, 643.8, and 674.8 mg·m−3, respectively. The pollution load was highest in wet years due to the high levels of sediment. The pollution load of the reservoir did not exceed the class III classification of 29 405.01 kg·year−1. The pollution load in wet, normal, and dry years was 38 790.1, 25 991.9, and 23 929.0 kg·year−1, respectively. The phosphorus pollution is caused by the use of floating net cages in the reservoir, which makes it difficult to meet the standards. In wet years, the pollution load was higher than in normal and dry years. The P load could be higher in the wet season due to dilution and could probably decrease the pollutant concentration in the reservoir.

Open access

Piotr F. Borowski

Abstract

The aim of the research was to investigate the relationship between environmental pollution in Guinea Conakry and the levels of development as well as the assessment of climatic conditions as they influence pollution levels. In order to explore economic, social and cultural situations in Guinea, in-depth interviews were conducted and also face-to-face interviews were recorded. There were observations made in two extreme climatic conditions (dry season and rainy season) that have allowed inference to the impact of climatic conditions on pollution levels.

Open access

Tongdi Jamir

Abstract

Air pollution is an important issue around the world. Evidence of air pollution and its impact has been well established by the scientific communities. The effects of these changes on the smaller towns in Brahmaputra valley of Assam still need to be investigated. This study concludes that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM) shows increasing trend in all the seasons except during the monsoon season but significant during the winter season. The study also reveals that RSPM remained above the standards throughout the decade, unlike SPM, which rose above the standards only during the years 2006, 2008 and 2009. It is also observed that during the rainy seasons Coefficient of Variation (CV) is high in maximum numbers of stations. The study concludes that exponential increase in population; vehicular activities, rainfall and wind direction as well as geographical conditions have indirectly influenced the pollutions.

Open access

Piotr M. Bugajski, Elwira Nowobilska-Majewska and Karolina Kurek

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyze the mean daily wastewater load from the corporate wastewater treatment plant in Nowy Targ. The study analyzed the wastewater load expressed by BOD5, COD, total nitrogen (Ntot), total phosphorus (Ptot) and chromium ions (Cr). The study was conducted from 2006 to 2016, in which 591 samples of raw wastewater were collected and analyzed in a control well before the treatment plant with a mean of 4 times a month. The scope of research in the analytical part covered the variability of wastewater loads in individual years and determined the characteristic values of mean daily load in particular months. Mean daily wastewater load for BOD5 – 7 053 kg·d−1 for COD – 23 437 kg·d−1 for total nitrogen – 1 464 kg·d−1 for total phosphorus – 197 kg·d−1 and for chromium ions – 129 kg·d−1. For each of the analyzed index, it was found that in the each months mean daily wastewater load in raw wastewater is variable. In the analyzed period the mean daily discharged wastewater oscillated within 13 924 m3·d−1, which accounted for about 66% of the projected load.

Open access

Lucjan Gucma, Wiesław Juszkiewicz and Kinga Łazuga

Abstract

According to the HELCOM AIS, there are about 2,000 ships in the Baltic marine area at any given moment. The main environmental effects of shipping and other activities at sea include air pollution, illegal deliberate and accidental discharges of oil, hazardous substances and other wastes, and the unintentional introduction of invasive alien organisms via ships’ ballast water or hulls. Original oil pollution model and optimal allocation of response resources was proposed in the paper.

Open access

R. Chirică and G.I. Comșa

Abstract

Noise pollution is one of the biggest problems that europeans is facing in our days. Half of europeans live in a permanent noise and one third suffer from insomnia due to noise pollution. Also, besides affecting social life, exposure to noise can cause changes in the organs, and it can be a triggering cause disease.

Open access

Paweł Zawadzki, Sadżide Murat-Błażejewska and Ryszard Błażejewski

Abstract

The paper presents history and recent review of investigations on ecological status of the Strzeszyńskie Lake, located within borders of town Poznań. The lake is a popular rest place, also for bathing and angling, therefore its state concerns many institutions and inhabitants. Recently, a deterioration of its ecological state has been observed due to pollution from a tributary catchment (Row Złotnicki), lake’s direct catchment, precipitation and fallen leaves. Phosphorus balance for an average year was estimated. A review of applied remedies was provided but an assessment of their effectiveness was unfeasible due to simultaneity and relatively short duration of their application.

Open access

Marek Krywult, Anna Salachna, Damian Chmura and Jan Żarnowiec

Abstract

Two species of mosses in relation to nitrogen metabolism were examined. This subject is little known in this group of plant. Investigations of nitrate reductase activity in green tissues of Brachythecium rutabulum (Hedw.) Schimp. and Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.) P.Beauv. were performed. The study was conducted in two localities: heavy contaminated waste tip Skalny located in Upper Silesia, and Blonia City Park in Bielsko-Biala which place was chosen as a control area. For both species high activity of the enzyme was detected. The nitrate reductase activity varied between 99 to 9093 nmol per g dry mass per hour for B. rutabulum and 265 to 5135 nmol per g d.m. per hour of nitrite synthesized for A. undulatum respectively on Skalny waste tip. In the control area the results varied between 747 to 1077 for B. rutabulum and 171 to 518 nmol per g d.m. per hour of nitrite synthesized for A. undulatum, respectively. The differences were statistically significant only between the two species but not between habitats probably due to high dispersion and small amount of replications. The levels of nitrate and nitrite in stream water in both areas were also measured. In the Skalny waste tip there were high and reached 1.66 mg · dm-3 of nitrite and 65 mg · dm-3 of nitrate, respectively. In the control area these amounts were lower and reach zero level for nitrite and 4.5 mg · dm-3 of nitrate, respectively.