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Open access

Mihai Dumitru, Daniel Tweedie, Ion Anghel, Romica Cergan, Codrut Sarafoleanu and Adrian Costache

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Ultrasonography has been used in rhinology for diagnosing trauma lesions (fractures, hemosinus), second opinion in tumoral pathology, screening for sinusitis, but on a small scale and with future prospects of cost efficiency.

OBJECTIVE. We hope to grow awareness of the possible use of ultrasound in screening for nasal and paranasal sinuses pathology at the level of ENT emergency departments.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We describe the technique for ultrasound examination of this region, emphasizing the need for a profound anatomical knowledge characteristic for ENT specialists. Any specialist having access to an ultrasound machine is encouraged to experiment with this imaging procedure. Two cases benefited from the use of ultrasonography in order to receive a better management and a swift treatment. One case presented with a maxillary sinus tumor and another with a paranasal tumor neighbouring the orbit.

CONCLUSION. Ultrasonography of nasal and paranasal sinuses permits serial examination without irradiating the patient; it could be implemented as an addition to FAST-like protocols at the level of emergency departments in order to screen for occult head and neck pathology prior to conventional radiology and CT imaging and thus reducing costs

Open access

Grzegorz Ignatowski

Abstract

Among the important pathological phenomena for our contemporary social life, among others, workaholism, internetoholism, addiction to mobile phones as well as drug addiction are listed. Smoking electronic cigarettes should also be regarded as an element of the phenomena exhibiting signs of addiction. Currently there are no formal restrictions that would not allow their use in public places. Their smoking is therefore dependent on the education and personal culture. Research conducted by the author of this paper confirms that the most important transmitter of culture is still the immediate family. In families then one should seek an ally in education to ensure that electronic cigarettes should not be smoked in public areas. The conclusion is therefore that education regarding treatment of electronic cigarettes as something bad and inappropriate should also cover the parents.

Open access

Maria Katkiewicz, Maciej Witkowski and Sylwester Zając

Abstract

The aim of the study was to find out the relationship between the progression of endometrosis and the appearance of the structural microscopic changes in mares’ ovaries. The investigation was performed on slaughtered mares of various age and breed. Four groups each received a portion of the specimens, and designation to group was according to the stage of endometrosis determined on the basis of Kenney’s classification. Uterine and ovarian sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results of the microscopic evaluation were compared between mares classified into specific Kenney’s categories. It was shown that an increase in ovarian follicular cysts was related to mares’ ages and correlated with significant progression of the endometrosis. These observations suggest that the same aetiological factors may take part both in triggering disorders of ovarian oo/folliculogenesis and in spurring uterine endometrosis. Further more detailed methods of investigation are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of both disease processes.

Open access

Ilze Strumfa, Andrejs Vanags, Arnis Abolins and Janis Gardovskis

Summary

Breast cancer has high incidence and still significant mortality. Due to the widespread application and efficacy of surgery in breast cancer treatment, the surgeon has a crucial role in the treatment planning. Taking into account the tendency to personalized cancer care and the heterogeneity of breast cancer, the surgeon has to be aware about the prognostic and predictive characteristics of breast cancer. We discuss here the classaic pathology of breast cancer along with molecular subtypes, novel prognostic markers and molecular pathogenesis.

Open access

Thongam Bidya Devi, T. Jawahar Abraham and Dibyendu Kamilya

Abstract

The present study tested the susceptibility and pathological changes of catla, Catla catla (Hamilton) infected with Edwardsiella tarda (ET-PG-29). The bacterium was isolated from the kidney of a diseased pangas catfish. To determine the median lethal dose (LD50), C. catla were challenged with this bacterium (108-103 CFU ml-1), and the LD50 was calculated as 105.5 CFU ml-1. Another set of healthy C. catla were injected intraperitoneally with the LD50 dose to induce edwardsiellosis. The clinical signs of the infected C. catla were observed and recorded. Tissues such as kidney, liver, intestine, heart, and gill from the infected fish with clinical signs of edwardsiellosis were used for histopathology. The clinical and gross signs were first visible at 1 d post-injection, and the infected fish showed typical signs of hemorrhagic septicemia. The most striking histopathological features were found in the kidney which showed multi-focal necrosis with the formation of granuloma indicating an inflammatory response against the pathogen. The intestine displayed goblet cell hyperplasia, the liver showed hydropic degeneration with hyperemic central veins, and there was inflammation of gill lamellae and cardiac myositis associated with leucocyte infiltration. Collectively, the results confirmed the susceptibility of C. catla to E. tarda infection and that this bacterium is a threat to C. catla in aquaculture practices.

Open access

O. Munteanu, A. Dumitru, O. Bodean, L. Arsene, D. Voicu, E. Bratilă, C. Mehedinţu, M. Sajin and M.M. Cîrstoiu

Abstract

From breast malignant tumors, bone is the most frequent site of metastasis. Bone metastases from breast cancer are correlated with pathological fractures, spinal cord compression and other skeletal-related events as well as bone pain and hypercalcemia. These lead to impaired mobility, decreased quality of life, and overall decrease in survival. Clarification of mechanisms regulating bone metastasis has advanced greatly in the last years and this has translated into plentiful unused therapeutic options. Greater understanding of the pathophysiology of bone metastases has led to the detection and clinical efficiency of bone-targeted agents. This review summarizes the key evidence for current clinical practice and future directions.

Open access

O. Bodean, T. Georgescu, L. Arsene, D. Voicu, O. Munteanu, C. Berceanu, M. Sajin and M.M. Cîrstoiu

Abstract

Ovarian carcinoma is a deadly disease, with one of the highest case-to-fatality ratio amongst all gynecological malignancies. The high mortality of these tumors can be explained by the fact that most patients present at an advanced stage, with widely spread metastatic disease, especially within the peritoneal cavity. Extraperitoneal, occult metastases are usually rare in cancer surviving patients. Bone metastases are not a common finding, but their incidence seems to be higher than expected, as proven by autopsy studies. Because most clinicians are not very familiar with bone metastases of ovarian carcinoma, in this article we intended to discuss the most controversial aspects concerning the diagnosis of this type of disease.

Open access

Adriana Neagos, Alexandra Cirticioiu, Alex George Stanciu and Iren Csiszer

Abstract

OBJECTIVE. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of the nasal pathologies over nasal mucociliary clearance and rhinomanometric parameters.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. This is a retrospective analytical observational clinical study during a period of 6 months, between 2014 and 2015. 123 subjects, 63 of whom had nasal pathology and 60 of whom were healthy controls, were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of nasal pathology was made based on clinical examination, nasal endoscopy and anterior rhinomanometry. A methylene blue test was used to evaluate the mucociliary clearance.

RESULTS. The subjects with nasal pathology had nasal septum deviation (No=50), chronic rhinitis (No=42), rhinosinusitis (No=15) and nasal polyposis (No=17). The mean total air flow in inspiration in nasal pathology patients group was 546.7 ml/s (millilitre/second), with a median of 594 ml/s, comparing with the control group who had the mean air flow of 865.5 ml/s, with a median of 866.5 ml/s. In expiration, the mean air flow in those with nasal pathology was 603.9 ml/s and a median of 611 ml/s, comparing with the control group who had the mean air flow of 871.1 ml/s and a median around 872 ml/s. The mean time from the application of methylene blue liquid to first seeing it in patients with nasal pathology was 23.41 minutes for the right nostril and 23.32 minutes for the left nostril, comparing with the control group who had the mean of mucociliary clearance of 6.76 minutes for the right nostril and 6.93 minutes for the left one.

CONCLUSION. The results obtained in anterior rhinomanometry and methylene blue liquid test showed that nasal pathology does affect nasal physiology and it is an important factor to evaluate the mucociliary clearance.

Open access

Jing Luo, Can Sun and Wei Sun

Abstract

Background: Only a few cases of Leiomyomatoid angiomatous neuroendocrine tumor (LANT) have been reported in the literature. Our case adds clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical features.

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of LANT.

Material and Method: One case of LANT of the myometrium was reported in a review of literature. The morphological and immunohistochemical features were analyzed.

Results: In the course of an annual health examination of a 40-year-old woman, ultrasound results revealed a mass in the myometrium, which was clinically diagnosed as uterine leiomyoma. The patient underwent hysterectomy. Histological examination demonstrated that the tumor was composed of prominent vasculature and cellular stromal around vessels. Mitotic activity was absent. Both vascular and stromal cells showed diffusely expressed CD56 and chromogranin A. Stromal cells also expressed actin, SMA, and desmin, but not CK or HMB45. The pathological diagnosis was LANT of the myometrium. Follow up reported no evidence of recurrence three months after surgery.

Conclusion: LANT is a possible new disease entity. LANT is a dimorphic tumor consisting of smooth muscle and neurosecretory phenotype cells surrounding intratumoral vessels. Surgery may be the best treatment, resulting in good prognosis.

Open access

Aleksander Łukasiewicz, Elżbieta Nawrocka and Stanisław Molski

A Midgut Malrotation with Entire Small Bowel Necrosis

A case of previously undiagnosed midgut malrotation with bowel torsion and subsequent total small bowel necrosis in adult is described. Curative resection saved patient's life. In short discussion, diagnostic and management pitfalls of late clinical presentation of midgut malrotation are described.