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Preoperative intensity-modulated chemoradiation therapy with simultaneous integrated boost in rectal cancer: 2-year follow-up results of phase II study

Abstract

Background

The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of experimental fractionation using intensity modulated radiation therapy with a simultaneous integrated boost (IMRT-SIB) to shorten the overall treatment time without dose escalation in preoperative radiochemotherapy of locally advanced rectal cancer.

Patients and methods

Between January 2014 and November 2015, a total of 51 patients with operable stage II-III rectal adenocarcinoma were treated. The preoperative treatment with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a pelvic dose of 41.8 Gy and simultaneously delivered 46.2 Gy to T2/3 and 48.4 Gy to T4 tumour in 22 fractions, with standard concomitant capecitabine, was completed in 50 patients out of whom 47 were operated. The median follow-up was 35 months.

Results

The rate of acute toxicity G ≥ 3 was 2.4%. The total downstaging rate was 89% and radical resection was achieved in 98% of patients. Pathologic complete response (pCR) was observed in 25.5% of patients, with 2-year local control (LC), disease free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) of 100% for this patient group. An intention-to-treat analysis revealed pN to be a significant prognostic factor for DFS and OS (P = 0.005 and 0.030, respectively). LC for the entire group was 100%, and 2-year DFS and OS were 90% (95 % CI 98.4–81.6) and 92.2% (95% CI 99.6–84.7), respectively.

Conclusions

The experimental regime in this study resulted in a high rate of pCR with a low acute toxicity profile. Excellent early results translated into encouraging 2-year LC, DFS, and OS.

Open access
Induction chemotherapy, chemoradiotherapy and consolidation chemotherapy in preoperative treatment of rectal cancer - long-term results of phase II OIGIT-01 Trial

Abstract

Background

The purpose of the study was to improve treatment efficacy for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) by shifting half of adjuvant chemotherapy preoperatively to one induction and two consolidation cycles.

Patients and methods

Between October 2011 and April 2013, 66 patients with LARC were treated with one induction chemotherapy cycle followed by chemoradiotherapy (CRT), two consolidation cycles, surgery and three adjuvant capecitabine cycles. Radiation doses were 50.4 Gy for T2-3 and 54 Gy for T4 tumours in 1.8 Gy daily fraction. The doses of concomitant and neo/adjuvant capecitabine were 825 mg/m2/12h and 1250mg/m2/12h, respectively. The primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR).

Results

Forty-three (65.1%) patients were treated according to protocol. The compliance rates for induction, consolidation, and adjuvant chemotherapy were 98.5%, 93.8% and 87.3%, respectively. CRT was completed by 65/66 patients, with G ≥ 3 non-hematologic toxicity at 13.6%. The rate of pCR (17.5%) was not increased, but N and the total-down staging rates were 77.7% and 79.3%, respectively. In a median follow-up of 55 months, we recorded one local relapse (LR) (1.6%). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 64.0% (95% CI 63.89–64.11) and 69.5% (95% CI 69.39–69.61), respectively.

Conclusions

In LARC preoperative treatment intensification with capecitabine before and after radiotherapy is well tolerated, with a high compliance rate and acceptable toxicity. Though it does not improve the local effect, it achieves a high LR rate, DFS, and OS.

Open access