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Šárka Čemerková, Jarmila Šebestová and Roman Šperka

Abstract

cBackground and Purpose: Part-time employment could be seen as a modern form of employment or a type of innovative organizational change. The average share of part-time jobs in the Czech Republic in the observed period of 2004-2016 was 3.9 % according to the OECD, in comparison to the average OECD value of 16.6%. The main question to arise was, are there any regional differences? The presented conclusions are based on a regional study in the Moravian-Silesian Region (MSR) in the Czech Republic where the median value of part- time jobs is 10%. The main goal is to evaluate the regional level of part-time job offers and identify the main opportunities and obstacles which cause the low number of these job positions. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper is based on a quantitative study using a questionnaire-based survey, comprising 215 respondents - owners of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Moravian-Silesian Region in the Czech Republic. The survey consists of 16 questions in three main areas: (i) Entrepreneurial motivation (1 item), (ii) External factors - Labour market problems (4 items), and (iii) Internal factors. Secondary information such as the results of earlier studies and regional government websites were used for data results comparison. All variables are compared in the context of the branch of business, number of employees, turnover, and age. Finally, a factor analysis was used to find the main way how to improve part-time job offers. Results: The variety of businesses and different regional locations opens up space for discussion regarding parttime job support. A factor analysis found five significant issues, which could affect local labour market and company behaviour. Conclusion: The added value of the paper can be seen in the factor identification, where internal willingness to support part-time employment and qualification growth as organizational change must be in first place.

Open access

Kamila Fialová

Abstract

This article explores the development of part-time employment in Central and Eastern Europe and compares it to Western Europe. On the macro level it examines the role of the business cycle and its effect on part-time employment in the two groups of countries since 2001. The key result reveals that contrary to the West, the business cycle development exerts a significant negative effect on the part-time employment rate in Eastern Europe. When the economy operates below its potential, part-time employment tends to grow more than full-time employment. This finding is consistent with the labour demand effect and reflects the pursuit of flexibility by firms as well as the adjustment in composition of employment to changing economic conditions. The countercyclical effect is even stronger for involuntary part-time employment. Separate analyses of individual demographic groups of workers reveal a significant negative effect of the business cycle on part-time employment of older workers and male prime-age workers in Eastern Europe. In contrast, the effect is insignificant for young workers and unclear for prime-age women.