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Open access

K. Kepa, D. Coburn, J. Dainty and F. Morgan

High Speed Optical Wavefront Sensing with Low Cost FPGAs

This paper outlines a study into deployment of a parallel processing scheme on an FPGA to meet the needs of high bandwidth processing in adaptive optics wavefront sensing. By exploiting a multi-stage pipeline approach we have significantly reduced the processing time needed to perform the wavefront sensing operation. The paper details the design, implementation, and performance testing results of the proposed FPGA-based wavefront sensing system.

Open access

Christian Posthoff and Bernd Steinbach

The Solution of SAT Problems Using Ternary Vectors and Parallel Processing

This paper will show a new approach to the solution of SAT-problems. It has been based on the isomorphism between the Boolean algebras of finite sets and the Boolean algebras of logic functions depending on a finite number of binary variables. Ternary vectors are the main data structure representing sets of Boolean vectors. The respective set operations (mainly the complement and the intersection) can be executed in a bit-parallel way (64 bits at present), but additionally also on different processors working in parallel. Even a hierarchy of processors, a small set of processor cores of a single CPU, and the huge number of cores of the GPU has been taken into consideration. There is no need for any search algorithms. The approach always finds all solutions of the problem without consideration of special cases (such us no solution, one solution, all solutions). It also allows to include problem-relevant knowledge into the problem-solving process at an early point of time. Very often it is possible to use ternary vectors directly for the modeling of a problem. Some examples are used to illustrate the efficiency of this approach (Sudoku, Queen's problems on the chessboard, node bases in graphs, graph-coloring problems, Hamiltonian and Eulerian paths etc.).

Open access

Tomasz Dziubich, Julian Szymański, Adam Brzeski, Jan Cychnerski and Waldemar Korłub

Abstract

In this paper, we propose a distributed system for point cloud processing and transferring them via computer network regarding to effectiveness-related requirements. We discuss the comparison of point cloud filters focusing on their usage for streaming optimization. For the filtering step of the stream pipeline processing we evaluate four filters: Voxel Grid, Radial Outliner Remover, Statistical Outlier Removal and Pass Through. For each of the filters we perform a series of tests for evaluating the impact on the point cloud size and transmitting frequency (analysed for various fps ratio). We present results of the optimization process used for point cloud consolidation in a distributed environment. We describe the processing of the point clouds before and after the transmission. Pre- and post-processing allow the user to send the cloud via network without any delays. The proposed pre-processing compression of the cloud and the post-processing reconstruction of it are focused on assuring that the end-user application obtains the cloud with a given precision.

Open access

Dániel Marcsa and Miklós Kuczmann

Abstract

Because of the exponential increase of computational resource requirement for numerical field simulations of more and more complex physical phenomena and more and more complex large problems in science and engineering practice, parallel processing appears to be an essential tool to handle the resulting large-scale numerical problems. One way of parallelization of sequential (singleprocessor) finite element simulations is the use of domain decomposition methods. Domain decomposition methods (DDMs) for parallel solution of linear systems of equations are based on the partitioning of the analyzed domain into sub-domains which are calculated in parallel while doing appropriate data exchange between those sub-domains. In this case, the non-overlapping domain decomposition method is the Lagrange multiplier based Finite Element Tearing and Interconnecting (FETI) method. This paper describes one direct solver and two parallel solution algorithms of FETI method. Finally, comparative numerical tests demonstrate the differences in the parallel running performance of the solvers of FETI method. We use a single-phase transformer and a three-phase induction motor as twodimensional static magnetic field test problems to compare the solvers

Open access

Hyung Tae Kim, Kyung Chan Jin, Seung Taek Kim, Jongseok Kim and Seung-Bok Choi

Abstract

This work presents a novel signal processing method for high-speed 3D body measurements using millimeter waves with a general processing unit (GPU) and zero-padding fast Fourier transform (ZPFFT). The proposed measurement system consists of a radio-frequency (RF) antenna array for a penetrable measurement, a high-speed analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for significant data acquisition, and a general processing unit for fast signal processing. The RF waves of the transmitter and the receiver are converted to real and imaginary signals that are sampled by a high-speed ADC and synchronized with the kinematic positions of the scanner. Because the distance between the surface and the antenna is related to the peak frequency of the conjugate signals, a fast Fourier transform (FFT) is applied to the signal processing after the sampling. The sampling time is finite owing to a short scanning time, and the physical resolution needs to be increased; further, zero-padding is applied to interpolate the spectra of the sampled signals to consider a 1/m floating point frequency. The GPU and parallel algorithm are applied to accelerate the speed of the ZPFFT because of the large number of additional mathematical operations of the ZPFFT. 3D body images are finally obtained by spectrograms that are the arrangement of the ZPFFT in a 3D space.

Open access

Khalid Saeed, Marek Tabędzki, Mariusz Rybnik and Marcin Adamski

K3M: A universal algorithm for image skeletonization and a review of thinning techniques

This paper aims at three aspects closely related to each other: first, it presents the state of the art in the area of thinning methodologies, by giving descriptions of general ideas of the most significant algorithms with a comparison between them. Secondly, it proposes a new thinning algorithm that presents interesting properties in terms of processing quality and algorithm clarity, enriched with examples. Thirdly, the work considers parallelization issues for intrinsically sequential algorithms of thinning. The main advantage of the suggested algorithm is its universality, which makes it useful and versatile for a variety of applications.

Open access

I. Nikolova

Abstract

This paper deals with the challenging task of acquiring stable image features in a sequence of images of the same scene taken under different viewing positions by a digital still camera. Two popular contemporary algorithms for discrete feature detection: SIFT and SURF are regarded. The results of the timing performance analysis of their sequential implementations are presented and discussed. The performance speedup analysis and scalability tests with multi-threading and GPU-based implementations are analyzed

Open access

Marta Kolasa, Rafał Długosz and Krzysztof Bieliński

Programmable, Asynchronous, Triangular Neighborhood Function for Self-Organizing Maps Realized on Transistor Level

A new hardware implementation of the triangular neighborhood function (TNF) for ultra-low power, Kohonen self-organizing maps (SOM) realized in the CMOS 0.18μm technology is presented. Simulations carried out by means of the software model of the SOM show that even low signal resolution at the output of the TNF block of 3-6 bits (depending on input data set) does not lead to significant disturbance of the learning process of the neural network. On the other hand, the signal resolution has a dominant influence on the overall circuit complexity i.e. the chip area and the energy consumption. The proposed neighborhood mechanism is very fast. For an example neighborhood range of 15 a delay between the first and the last neighboring neuron does not exceed 20 ns. This in practice means that the adaptation process starts in all neighboring neurons almost at the same time. As a result, data rates of 10-20 MHz are achievable, independently on the number of neurons in the map. The proposed SOM dissipates the power in-between 100 mW and 1 W, depending on the number of neurons in the map. For the comparison, the same network realized on PC achieves in simulations data rates in-between 10 Hz and 1 kHz. Data rate is in this case linearly dependend on the number of neurons.

Open access

Shahab Moshari, Amir Hossein Nikseresht and Reza Mehryar

ABSTRACT

With the development of the technology of underwater moving bodies, the need for developing the knowledge of surface effect interaction of free surface and underwater moving bodies is increased. Hence, the two-phase flow is a subject which is interesting for many researchers all around the world. In this paper, the non-linear free surface deformations which occur during the water-exit of a circular cylinder due to its buoyancy are solved using finite volume discretization based code, and using Volume of Fluid (VOF) scheme for solving two phase flow. Dynamic mesh model is used to simulate dynamic motion of the cylinder. In addition, the effect of cylinder mass in presence of an external force is studied. Moreover, the oblique exit and entry of a circular cylinder with two exit angles is simulated. At last, water-exit of a circular cylinder in six degrees of freedom is simulated in 3D using parallel processing. The simulation errors of present work (using VOF method) for maximum velocity and height of a circular cylinder are less than the corresponding errors of level set method reported by previous researchers. Oblique exit shows interesting results; formation of waves caused by exit of the cylinder, wave motion in horizontal direction and the air trapped between the waves are observable. In 3D simulation the visualization of water motion on the top surface of the cylinder and the free surface breaking on the front and back faces of the 3D cylinder at the exit phase are observed which cannot be seen in 2D simulation. Comparing the results, 3D simulation shows better agreement with experimental data, specially in the maximum height position of the cylinder.

Open access

Tomasz Niedoba and Dariusz Jamróz

Abstract

Coal as energetic raw material features by many parameters determining its quality. In classification of coal types there are many of them with typical division of energetic, semi-coking and coking coal. The data concerning coal are usually treated as independent values while this kind of approach is not always right. Authors proposed new solutions in this aspect and performed the multidimensional analysis of three selected types of coal featuring by various properties which originated from three various hard coal mines located in Upper Silesia Region. The object of the research was so-called raw coal which was not processed before. For each type of coal the detailed statistical analysis of seven chosen properties of coal was performed. To perform adequate and complete statistical analysis it is necessary to analyze the chosen properties of coal together in multidimensional way. It was decided to apply new and modern visualizing methods of multidimensional data which were observational tunnels method and parallel coordinates method. The applied methods allowed to obtain visualization of seven-dimensional data describing coal. By means of these visualizations it was possible to observe the significant division of the features space between researched types of coal. These methods allowed to look at the investigated data from various perspectives and make possible to determine significant differences between researched materials. For the investigated coals such differences were determined clearly what proved that by means of these methods it is possible to successfully identify type of coal as well to analyze in details its individual properties and identify, for example, particle size fraction etc. The obtained results are innovative and are the basis for more detailed researches taking into consideration also other coal properties, including its structure and texture. This methodology can be also applied successfully for other types of raw materials, like ores.