Expression of α (ER-α) and β (ER-ß) oestrogen receptors in neurons of basolateral complex of the amygdala was studied in rabbit males. The examinations were carried out on brains of 12 sexually mature rabbit males weighing 3-4 kg. An immunohistochemical method (IHC) with primary Er-α antibodies, NCL-L6F11 and Er-ß: NCL-ERbeta clone EMR02 was applied. The percentage of immunoreactive neurons was determined. Morphometric and statistical analysis of immunoreactive (ER+) neurons was carried out including the localisation of IHC reaction within the examined neurons. The main place of IHC-ER-α reaction was the cytoplasm of nervous cells, whereas in the examination of IHC-ER-β, the reaction was observed mainly within cell nucleus. The nuclei of basolateral complex are a region of relatively high percentage of ER-β+ neurons and lower percentage of ER-α+ neurons in comparison with other nuclei of the amygdala. Basolateral nucleus was characterised by a higher percentage of ER- β+ neurons in which the reaction was observed in the cytoplasm.
Małgorzata Matysek, Izabela Krakowska, Grzegorz Lonc and Roman Lalak
The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of α (Erα) and β (Erβ) oestrogen receptors in rabbit male’s claustrum, and thus to examine whether oestrogens may influence nerve cells’ functions of this structure. The material for the study was obtained from the brains of seven rabbits. To detect the presence of Erα and Erβ, specific monoclonal antibodies were used. The expression of Erα and Erβ was demonstrated in proper claustrum, as well as in the nucleus endopiriformis. For Erβ, the reaction occurred mainly in the cell nucleus, whereas Erα was localised predominantly in the neuron cytoplasm. For both Erα and Erβ, the nuclear and cytoplasmic localisation was observed in a small percentage of the examined cells. The obtained results may indicate oestrogen influence on the brain area and also suggest a further research on oestrogen-dependent pathways in males, which still remain greatly unexplored.
Performance of Fine Motor and Spatial Tasks During the Menstrual Cycle
Various studies have shown fluctuations in task performance during the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to see the effects of the menstrual cycle on performing fine motor and spatial tasks of different level of complexity in twenty students aged 18 to 21 years, with regular menstrual cycle (28 to 30 days). The students performed O'Connor Finger Dexterity Test and mental rotation test during the menstrual, late follicular, and midluteal phase. Before the tests were performed, we administered Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for each phase. After the tasks were completed, the subjects ranked their difficulty on Borg's scale.
The results showed the best performance in both tests in the midluteal phase (with sex hormones at their peak). The anxiety level and task difficulty ranking were the highest in the menstrual phase, when the hormone levels were the lowest.
Izabela Krakowska, Grzegorz Lonc, Małgorzata Matysek and Marta Kupczyńska
The aim of the study was to compare the immunoreactivity and distribution of two kinds of oestrogen receptors within the nerve tissue of the posterior part of the piriform cortex, as well as their localisation within nerve cells. The studied material consisted of 12 brains of sexually mature rabbit males weighing 3-4 kg. In order to prove the presence of α and β receptors, Er-α and Er-β antibodies were used. The examinations showed the presence of Er-α and E-rβ receptors in all layers of the piriform cortex, however, mainly in the IInd and IIIrd layer. The reaction occurred in the nucleus and cytoplasm of neurons. The obtained results can imply the influence of oestrogen on the functions of the examined brain area in rabbits, which in human is responsible for perception and categorisation of odour.
Ranko Stojković, Aleksandra Fucic, Dušica Ivanković, Zoran Jukić, Petra Radulović, Josip Grah, Nenad Kovačević, Lovro Barišić and Božo Krušlin
The mechanisms that lead to sex and age differences in biological responses to exposure to ionising radiation and related health risks have still not been investigated to a satisfactory extent. The significance of sex hormones in the aetiology of radiogenic cancer types requires a better understanding of the mechanisms involved, especially during organism development. The aim of this study was to show age and sex differences in genome damage between prepubertal and adult mice after single exposure to gamma radiation. Genome damage was measured 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after exposure of 3-week and 12-week old BALB/CJ mice to 8 Gy of gamma radiation using an in vivo micronucleus assay. There was a significantly higher genome damage in prepubertal than in adult animals of both sexes for all sampling times. Irradiation caused a higher frequency of micronuclei in males of both age groups. Our study confirms sex differences in the susceptibility to effects of ionising radiation in mice and is the first to show that such a difference occurs already at prepubertal age.
U radu se raspravlja o organizirajućim i aktivirajućim učincima spolnih hormona te o njihovu utjecaju na kognitivno funkcioniranje. Dosadašnja su istraživanja pokazala spolne razlike u nekim specifičnim kognitivnim sposobnostima. Žene su u prosjeku bolje u verbalnoj fluentnosti, perceptivnoj brzini i točnosti, kao i finijoj motorici, dok su muškarci u prosjeku bolji u prostornim i matematičkim sposobnostima. Ove razlike u kognitivnom funkcioniranju dovode se u vezu s izlaganjem mozga fetusa različitim razinama spolnih hormona tijekom prenatalnog života. Studije na skupinama rođenim s genskim poremećajima, kao što su sindrom neosjetljivosti na androgene, kongenitalna adrenalna hiperplazija i Turnerov sindrom također upućuju na organizirajuće učinke spolnih hormona na kognitivno funkcioniranje.
Nadalje, dosadašnja istraživanja pokazuju da povišene razine ženskih spolnih hormona u kasnoj folikularnoj i/ili lutealnoj fazi menstrualnog ciklusa potenciraju tipičan ženski kognitivni obrazac funkcioniranja, koji karakterizira veća učinkovitost u zadacima koje u prosjeku bolje rješavaju žene. Niske pak razine ovih hormona, koje karakteriziraju menstrualnu fazu ciklusa, potenciraju tipičan muški obrazac funkcioniranja, koji uključuje bolju učinkovitost u zadacima koje u prosjeku bolje rješavaju muškarci.
U radu se također raspravlja o metodološkim razlikama u dosadašnjim istraživanjima organizirajućih i aktivirajućih učinaka spolnih hormona na kognitivno funkcioniranje, kao i o smjernicama za buduća istraživanja.
Seyedeh Nazanin Seyed Saadat, Fahimeh Mohammadghasemi, Sina Khajeh Jahromi, Mohammad Amin Homafar and Mostafa Haghiri
Smoking is associated with higher infertility risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effects of melatonin on the uterus and oviduct in mice exposed to nicotine. Adult female mice (n=32) were divided into four groups. Group A: control animals received normal saline, Group B: injected with nicotine 40 μg/kg, Group C: injected with melatonin 10 μg, Group D: injected with nicotine 40 μg/kg and melatonin 10 μg. All animals were treated over 15 days intraperitoneally. On the 16th day, animals in the estrus phase were dissected and their uterus and oviducts were removed. Immunohistochemistry was recruited for studying apoptosis and for detection of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha in luminal epithelium of the uterus and oviduct. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for serum estradiol level determination. Nicotine in group B decreased estradiol level and ERalpha numbers both in the uterus and oviduct (p<0.05). Co-administration of melatonin-nicotine in Group D ameliorated the histology of the uterus and oviduct, increased ERalpha numbers and reduced apoptosis in the uterus and oviduct compared with the nicotine Group B (p<0.05). This study indicates that nicotine impairs the histology of the uterus and oviduct and co-administration of melatonin-nicotine ameliorates these findings, partly through alteration in ERalpha numbers and reduction of apoptosis
Petra Šimić, Zlatko Giljević, Velimir Šimunić, Slobodan Vukičević and Mirko Koršić
Osteoporoza je jedna od najčešćih metaboličkih bolesti i zahvaća 8 % do 10 % stanovništva. Budući da je prijelom najteža posljedica osteoporoze, vrlo je važno otkriti bolesnike koji imaju rizik nastanka prijeloma, dati im farmakološku terapiju i savjetovati im promjenu načina života. Nekoliko je lijekova pokazalo sposobnost smanjenja broja prijeloma kralježnice i/ili perifernog skeleta u bolesnika s osteoporozom. Antiresorptivni su lijekovi temelj terapije, ali su i anabolički lijekovi odnedavno proširili mogućnosti liječenja. Antiresorptivni lijekovi, estrogeni, selektivni modulatori estrogenskih receptora, bisfosfonati i kalcitonin, djeluju tako da smanjuju koštanu pregradnju. Paratireoidni hormon potiče novo stvaranje kosti popravljajući arhitekturu i gustoću kosti. Stroncijev ranelat smanjuje rizik osteoporotičnih prijeloma djelujući na oboje - smanjenje razgradnje i povećanje izgradnje kosti. Druga potencijalna liječenja osteoporoze također su opisana u ovome članku.
Irina Pacu, Cringu Ionescu, Cristian Serafinceanu, Anca Mihaela Pantea-Stoian and Viviana Elian
Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a condition affecting 1-2% of women younger than 40 years of age, characterized by amenorrhea, hypoestrogenism and elevated gonadotropin levels. In the last years it became a problem of social health interest as the frequency increased due to environmental factors and new, efficient methods for cancer treatment in young women. Few genes have beed identified to explain cases of POF but there are also autoimmune associated conditions and an increasing number of iatrogenic cases (chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy). Modern approach in POF means not only a precise etiological diagnosis, but also a correct counseling for these patients who often want to become parents, and a chance for a healthy life without the long term consequences of estrogen deprivation from an early age. In vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques can be useful for certain cases but research is needed on strategies to improve fertility for women who have follicles remaining in the ovaries.
Anthony C. Hackney, Ashley L. Kallman and Eser Ağgön
Study aim: Evidence supports female sex hormones have an influencing effect on amultitude of physiological and psychological systems related to exercise. Little is known, however, whether is effect persist into the recovery from exercise. Our objective was to examine aspects of muscle damage/inflammation process during recovery in healthy, exercise-trained women following endurance activity at the mid-follicular (MF; low sex hormone level) and mid-luteal (ML; elevated sex hormone levels) phases of their menstrual cycle.
Material and methods: The MF and ML exercise sessions consisted of running for 90 minutes at 70% VO2max on atreadmill in a controlled laboratory environment. Menstrual cycle phase was hormonally confirmed, diet and physical activity was control throughout the study. Outcome measures were: blood creatine kinase (CK) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) assessed at immediate-post exercise (IP), 24-hour and 72-hour into recovery. Statistics involved ANOVA procedures.
Results: At 24-hours and 72-hour into recovery CK activity was greater in MF than ML (p < 0.05) while for IL-6 at IP, 24-hour and 72-hour responses were significantly greater at MF than at ML (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: Amore robust recovery CK and IL-6 response occur in the MF of the menstrual cycle when female sex hormones are reduced. This finding suggests female sex hormone changes due to menstrual cycle phase affect the physiologic responses during the extended recovery period from intensive exercise in eumenorrheic women.