The term migration encompasses a dynamic and complex process affected by numerous components that at the same time creates numerous relationships and factors. Nowadays, migration is understood as a natural phenomenon that occurs in every state and as a source of cultural diversity or cultural contribution. Migration touches upon a great number of issues in the fields of demography, economy, language, religion, national security and politics.
This study describes international labour migration illustrated with the example of Slovakia as well as the theories that explain the beginnings and continuance of this type of migration. Contemporary migration trends shed light on which countries are presently the most attractive for labour migrants. The part devoted to migration policy attempts to generally define this term. The conclusion of the study is dedicated to the impact of labour migration on both the countries of origin and destination.
Jelena Kralj, Dragan Radović, Vesna Tutiš and Davor Ćiković
Migration of Central and East European Acrocephalus Warblers at the Eastern Adriatic Coast: An Analysis of Recoveries
Migration routes and origins of the Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus), Great Reed Warbler (A. arundinaceus) and Sedge Warbler (A. schoenobaenus) populations migrating through the eastern Adriatic coast were investigated by analysing recoveries of birds ringed or found at two eastern Adriatic wetlands during autumn migration. There were 75, 104 and 63 long-distance recoveries for these three species, respectively. Great Reed Warblers from central and eastern Europe and Sedge Warblers from countries surrounding the Baltic Sea use the eastern Adriatic wetlands as stopover sites and continue their migration across the Mediterranean. Some Great Reed Warblers use south-western route during their return migration. Reed Warblers of unknown origin, presumably from eastern Europe continue their migration through south-western route to Spain (mean distance - 1329.3 ± 118.0 km, n = 20; mean azimuth - 251.05 ± 4.91°, n = 20; mean velocity - 63.25 km/day, n = 16). Local breeding Reed Warblers migrate southeast along the eastern Mediterranean (azimuth 117.53°). Eastern Adriatic coast represents a crossroads for migratory warblers using south-western, south-eastern and central Mediterranean flyways.
During the last decades, the interest in migration policies has increased, both at institutional level and in academia. However, if the scientific understanding of policies associated with migration at destination has tremendously advanced, our knowledge about origin countries interventions in migration stays limited. Our paper addresses one of the largely unexplored topic of this area: if and what kind of policies supporting return/returnees the returnees themselves find appropriate. The analysis is based on 120 interviews with Romanian returnees, aged 18 to 39, coming back after at least 6 months of working or studying abroad in different EU countries. The article reveals that even if the return policies are generally positively evaluated by the Romanian returned migrants, not all of them support the idea of having policies specially designed for attracting migrants back to the origin country. Some of them simply reject the idea and others are sceptical about the state capacity of implementing this type of policies. The paper explores all the main clusters of attitudes towards return migration policies and illustrates each of them with excerpts from in-depth interviews.
In 2008, the Swedish government liberalised the labour migration policy to a demand driven model without labour market tests. This article analyses the effects of the policy change on the labour migration inflow. The migrants consist of three major categories including those moving to: skilled jobs as computer specialists and engineers, low-skilled jobs in the private service sector and seasonal work in the berry picking industry. The article shows that the new model has produced a labour migration inflow that is better explained by the access of employers and migrants to transnational networks rather than actual demand for labour
In the modern world, processes of migration are expected to contribute to economic development, the interchange of progressive technologies and knowledge as well as the blending of cultures. Solving the problems linked to migration processes is an important task to be accomplished by various state policies of European Union member countries. Both internal and external reasons explain why such policies are treated with much consideration nowadays. The present paper describes the development of European Union regulations on immigration and asylum, while tackling certain - primarily legal - aspects of immigration policies, too. Its conclusion based on the discussion of processes and legal provisions relates to the possible future of Europe.
This article analyses migration decisions and labour market manoeuvring of Latvian migrants to Norway, as well as the economic and social conditions that influence their choices. How do they adapt to the labour market in Norway? Do they practise circular migration, or do they aim for more permanent settlement? For some circular migrants, ‘reinforced’ motivation for migration emerges gradually, partly related to differences in working conditions – lower workload, better enforcement of work-safety regulations and opportunities for specialising in their field. Family and networks can influence both return and permanent settlement, depending on whether these are based in the home country or in Norway.
Anna Kozłowska, Katarzyna Stępniewska, Krzysztof Stępniewski and Przemysław Busse
Dynamics of Autumn Migration of the Acrocephalus Warblers Through the Polish Baltic Coast
We analyse in our paper the autumn migration of five warblers: i.e. the Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus), Sedge Warbler (A. schoenobaenus), Marsh Warbler (A. palustris), Great Reed Warbler (A. arundinaceus) and Aquatic Warbler (A. paludicola), through the Polish Baltic coast. Data were collected in 1962-2005 at two stations: Bukowo-Kopań and Mierzeja Wiślana, as well as (for a comparison) at the Drużno station in 1990-2002 and 2003-2005. The most numerous species caught at all the stations was the Reed Warbler, whereas the Aquatic Warbler was caught only sporadically. Long-term number dynamics from Bukowo-Kopań and Mierzeja Wiślana showed considerable fluctuations for the first four species, which could have been influenced by weather or habitat changes, or they could have reflected long-term population cycles. Strong correlations between the numbers of species preferring reeds might indicate habitat basis of the fluctuations. Seasonal migration dynamics were also similar, with the peak of migration in mid-August. However, the dynamics from Drużno suggested that the real peak of migration occurred earlier. Median dates of the Reed Warbler migration at Bukowo-Kopań showed marked fluctuations, whereas at Mierzeja Wiślana they were delayed significantly; these changes were probably connected with climate changes.
Autumn Migration Dynamics and Biometrical Differentiation of the Dunnock (Prunella modularis) Passing the Southern Baltic Coast
The aim of this study is to determine biometrical differentiation among Dunnocks caught at the two ringing sites (Bukowo-Kopań and Mierzeja Wiślana) located on the southern Baltic coast. The distance between those two stations covers 190 km. The material was collected during autumn fieldwork of the Operation Baltic in 1961-2003. The material used for biometrical analysis comprises only immature birds from the period of the most intensive migration, when the numbers of caught individuals allowed to compare the results for both stations. The seasonal dynamics at both sites was pooled for 43 years of catching. Medians of autumn migration for the stations were significantly different. A shift of the median for the eastern site (Mierzeja Wiślana) by 6 days after the median for the western site (Bukowo-Kopań) suggested different origins of birds migrating through the stations. The analysis of standard deviations for the studied biometrical parameters confirms an intra-seasonal change in proportions of birds probably originating from different areas in Europe.
Transnational migration is a vast social phenomenon that has become a valid option for many Romanians since 1989. Romania is an emigration country and the favourite destinations of its citizens are Italy and Spain. This is the context in which I present my work, which focuses on the formation of transnational migration patterns from a village in the southern region of Romania. The data were generated during field research conducted in August 2012, and the empirical material consisted of field notes and interview transcripts corresponding to recorded conversations with local migrants, authority representatives and people without migration experience. In this particular community, two patterns of migration were identified, for which variables such as ethnicity (Roma/Romanian) and religious orientation (Orthodoxy/Adventism) appear to have explanatory power. My inquiry takes as its starting point the identification of this variety of migration patterns and concentrates on analysing them in the regional and national contexts based on the scholarly framework provided by network theory. Two major differences exist between them: the time frame of living and working abroad (clearly demarcated as three months, six months or indefinite) and the nature of the work environment (departures based on a work contract between the migrant and a company located at the destination and departures accompanied by uncertainty regarding workplace concerns upon arrival). Making sense of these life strategies and their local configurations are the objectives of this paper.
In Europe, the monitoring and management of migration flows are high on the political agenda. Evidence-based monitoring calls for adequate data, which do not exist. The sources of data on international migration differ significantly between countries in Europe and the initiatives to improve data collection and produce comparable data, including new legislation, did not yield the expected outcome. Scientists have developed statistical models that combine quantitative and qualitative data from different sources to derive at estimates of migration flows that account for differences in definition, undercoverage, undercount and other measurement problems. Official statisticians are reluctant to substitute estimates for measurements. This article reviews the progress made over the last decades and the challenges that remain. It concludes with several recommendations for better international migration data/estimates. They range from improved cooperation between actors to innovation in data collection and modelling.