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Open access

M. Cieśla, M. Mańka, F. Binczyk and P. Gradoń

Abstract

The paper presents the results of analysis of creep behaviour in short term creep tests of cast MAR-247 nickel-based superalloy samples made using various modification techniques and heat treatment. The accelerated creep tests were performed under temperature of 982 °C and the axial stresses of σ = 150 MPa (variant I) and 200 MPa (variant II). The creep behaviour was analysed based on: creep durability (creep rupture life), steady-state creep rate and morphological parameters of macro- and microstructure. It was observed that the grain size determines the creep durability in case of test conditions used in variant I, durability of coarse-grained samples was significantly higher.

Open access

D. Bartocha, C. Baron, J. Suchoń, J. Kilarski, J. Szajnar and W. Sebzda

Assessment of the Low Alloy Cast Steel Inoculation Effects with Chosen Additives

Structure, and thus the mechanical properties of steel are primarily a function of chemical composition and the solidification process which can be influenced by the application of the inoculation treatment. This effect depends on the modifier used. The article presents the results of studies designed to assess the effects of structural low alloy steel inoculation by selected modifying additives. The study was performed on nine casts modeled with different inoculants, assessment of the procedure impact was based on the macrostructure of made castings. The ratio of surface area equivalent to the axial zone of the crystals and columnar crystals zone was adopted as a measure of the inoculation effect.

Open access

M. Cieśla, F. Binczyk and M. Mańka

Abstract

Impact of surface and volume modification and double filtration during pouring the moulds on basic mechanical properties and creep resistance of nickel superalloys IN-713C and MAR-247 in conditions of accelerated creep of castings made of post-production scrap of these alloys is evaluated in this paper. The conditions of initiation and propagation of cracks in the specimens were analysed with consideration of stereological properties of material macro- and microstructure. It has been proven that in the conditions of hightemperature creep at 980°C and at stress σ = 150 MPa, creep resistance of superalloy MAR-247 is more than 10 times higher than the creep resistance of IN-713C alloy. In case of IN-713C alloy, the creep resistance negligibly depends on macrograin sizes. But, the macrograin size considerably affects the time to failure of specimens made of alloy MAR-247. Creep resistance of specimens made of coarse grain material was 20% higher than the resistance of fine grain materials.

Open access

K. Michałek, M. Tkadleckova, K. Gryc and P. Machovcak

Abstract

The paper presents new results obtained from the evaluation of the chemical composition, microcleanliness and structure of the 90-ton heavy ingot cast in two successive heats, in which the content of Cu and Ni was intentionally modified in order to assess the degree of mutual mixing of the two heats in the ingot volume during the steel casting and solidification. For determination of chemical composition, spectral analysis and LECO were used. Microcleanliness evaluation was carried out on a Hitachi microanalytical complex equipped with the energy-dispersive spectrometer Vantage. To assess the composition of oxide non-metallic inclusions ternary diagrams were used. Structure of the basic steel matrix was induced by etching. The evaluation showed that in the casting of two successive heats, a certain degree of inhomogeneity of chemical composition, especially in the lower part of the ingot can be assumed in case of different composition. A greater segregation of sulphur in the central top part of the ingot was also detected. However, microcleanliness of the entire ingot is in general very good with low proportions of non-metallic inclusions.

Open access

M. Ciesla, M. Manka, P. Gradon and F. Binczyk

Abstract

The study assesses the impact of surface and bulk modification and filtration during pouring on a durability under accelerated creep conditions of casts made of IN-713C and MAR-247 nickel superalloys scrap used for manufacturing of aircraft engine parts. The impact of solutionizing (1185°C/2 h) with subsequent ageing (870°C/20 h) on the creep resistance of a casting made from MAR-247 coarse-grained superalloy was also examined. Morphological structure parameters were determined with the use of Met-Ilo software. Macrostructure analysis of casts showed very significant impact of surface modification treatment. Creep test results clearly showed that coarse grained samples of IN-713C and MAR-247 superalloys have higher creep resistance. Moreover alloy MAR-247 had higher creep durability after heat treatment compared to as-cast state.

Open access

Radosław Wąsik and Krzysztof Michalec

Abstract

This paper is a review article which presents examples of application of the image analysis in wood testing. The objective of the paper was to present selected research methods with the use of image analysis used in the research on anatomy and macro-structure of wood carried out in the Department of Forest and Wood Utilization of the Institute of Forest Utilization and Forest Technology of the University of Agriculture in Krakow. In the part concerning research on wood anatomy the following areas of application of the image analysis were indicated: identification of wood species and variability of the selected parameters of the anatomic structure with special attention to coniferous trees. In the part concerning the research on macro-structure of wood, methodology of collection and preparation of wood samples and measurement of the most important properties of the macrostructure was described with the use of the image analysis program. Moreover, the selected areas of practical application of the results of such analysis were indicated.

Open access

F. Binczyk, P. Gradoń and M. Mańka

Mechanical Properties And Creep Resistance Of Nickel Alloys After Complex Modification And Double Filtration

The paper presents the results of studies to determine the effect of complex surface and bulk modification and double filtration during mould pouring on the stereological parameters of macrostructure and mechanical properties of castings made from the post-production waste IN-713C and the MAR-247 nickel alloys. The evaluation covered the number of grains per 1mm2 of the sample surface area, the average area of grains and the shape index, hardness HB, tensile strength and resistance to high temperature creep. The results indicate the possibility of controlling the stereological parameters of macrostructure through application of several variants of the modification, controlling in this way also different low- and high-temperature properties. The positive effect of double filtration of the alloy during mould pouring on the metallurgical quality and mechanical properties of castings has also been emphasized.

Open access

F. Binczyk and P. Gradoń

Abstract

The paper presents a research results concerning impact of volume modification (ceramic filter containning cobalt aluminate and hafnium powder) and simultaneous surface and volume modification on solidification and stereological parameters of macrostructure of castings made from post-production scrap of nickel superalloy IN-713C. Research included investigation of the influence of chemical composition on the temperature Tliq i Tsol and evaluation of following macrostructure parameters: the number of grains per mm2, average grain area and shape coefficient. Results indicate high influence of carbon content on Tliq. Macrostructure of sample castings indicate positive effect of surface and volume modification, however impact of surface modification is more pronounced.

Open access

Jacek Nawrocki, Kamil Gancarczyk, Wojciech Manaj, Robert Albrecht, Rafał Cygan and Krzysztof Krupa

Abstract

This paper analyses the nickel based superalloy Inconel 713C casts typically used in high and low pressure turbines of aircraft engines. The ingots were manufactured in the Research and Development Laboratory for Aerospace Materials at the Rzeszów University of Technology. The superalloy structures were analysed by the following methods: X-ray diffraction orientation measurement and ultrasonic wave propagation. Ultrasonic techniques are mainly used to measure the blade wall’s thickness. Measurement accuracy is determined by the velocity of the ultrasonic wave in the material tested. This work evaluates the effect of the nickel-based superalloy microstructure on the velocity of the ultrasonic wave propagation. Three different macrostructures: equiax (EQ), directionally solidified (DS) and single crystal (SX) were analysed. The authors determined the crystal misorientation in the obtained casts as the deviation of [001] crystallographic direction from the withdrawal axis or the main axis of the ingots. The measurements performed allowed researchers to identify significant differences in the wave velocity between EQ, DS and SX structures.

Open access

F. Binczyk, J. Cwajna and P. Gradoń

Abstract

Paper presents the results of research on modified surface grain refinement method used in investment casting of hollow, thin-walled parts made of nickel based superalloys. In the current technology, the refining inoculant is applied to the surface of the wax pattern and then, it is transferred to the ceramic mould surface during dewaxing. Because of its chemical activity the inoculant may react with the liquid metal which can cause defects on the external surface of the cast part. The method proposed in the paper aims to reduce the risk of external surface defects by applying the grain refiner only to the ceramic core which shapes the internal surface of the hollow casting. In case of thin-walled parts the grain refinement effect is visible throughout the thickness of the walls. The method is meant to be used when internal surface finish is less important, like for example, aircraft engine turbine blades, where the hollowing of the cast is mainly used to lower the weight and aid in cooling during operation.