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Open access

Meetu Agrawal, Tara Roshni Paul, Shantveer G. Uppin and Sundaram Challa

Abstract

Carcinosarcomas of the lung are uncommon neoplasms and are presently categorized along with sarcomatoid carcinomas in the WHO 2004 classification. Morphological recognition of individual components in a surgical specimen is usually straightforward. The respiratory epithelium is also a rare site for salivary gland type tumors. A 72-year-old lady who was investigated for an episode of hemoptysis was found to have a well circumscribed intraluminal tumor. The histo-morphological features were unique and composed of mucoepidermoid carcinoma and undifferentiated sarcoma. To the best of our knowledge, this unusual morphological combination has never been reported in literature.

Open access

Maciej Dancewicz, Maria Szymankiewicz, Janusz Kowalewski and Mariusz Bella

Non Small Cell Lung Cancer: Is There a Relationship Between Bacterial Colonization of the Tumour Parenchyma and Postoperative Infectious Complications?

The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of bacterial colonisation of a neoplastic lung tumour on the frequency of infectious complications after radical surgical treatment of the malignancy.

Material and methods. 49 patients operated on for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from 23rd January to 2nd November 2006 were included into the study. The analyzed group consisted of 39 men and 10 women, they were from 45 to 79 years old. Material for microbiological tests was collected in an operating theatre under sterile conditions directly after the resection of a tumour. A sample (5x5x5 mm) of the tumour was cultured for facultative anaerobes, obligate anaerobes and fungi. After the homogenisation of tumour tissues quantitative culture was also performed.

Results. Potentially pathogenic microbes were cultured from tumours in 14 patients (28.6%). The most frequent bacterium was Propionibacterium acnes. It was found in six out of 49 tumours (12.2%). In 13 cases (26.6%) postoperative infectious complications were observed. They were as follows: infection of the lower airways - 8 cases (16.3%), surgical wound infection - 3 cases (6.1%), pleurisy - 1 case (2%) and pleural empyema - 1 case (2%). In 12 patients (24.5%) pathogenic microbes were isolated from biological material obtained from other sources than a tumour. In remaining 36 patients (73.5%) no infectious postoperative complications were observed. In 13 patients in whom bacteria were cultured from a tumour there were no postoperative infectious complications. Only in one patient the same bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus) was identified in a tumour and 35 days later in pleural effusion where four other pathogenic bacteria were isolated, too. In 12 patients whose postoperative course was complicated by infections had no pathogenic microbes cultured from a resected tumour. Statistical analysis showed no significant relations between the presence of pathogenic microbes within a lung malignant tumour and postoperative infectious complications in patients.

Conclusions. The most frequent microbe cultured from non-small cell lung carcinoma is Propionibacterium acnes. There is no relation between the colonisation of a malignant tumour by bacteria and postoperative complications in patients treated surgically for NSCLC.

Open access

Wang Zhen-fei, Mu Yong-ping, Liang Jun-qing, Liu Yong-yan and Li Jing-quan

Abstract

Objective

This study aimed to investigate the influence of Xanthii fructus on the expression of small noncoding RNA (sncRNA) and the malignant behaviors of lung cancer cells.

Method

A549 cells were treated with Xanthii fructus extract. SncRNA expression was detected by real-time PCR. Proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and invasion capacities were determined using Cell Counting Kit (CCK)-8, soft agar colony formation, and Matrigel assays, respectively.

Results

Xanthii fructus extract downregulated microRNA (miR)-21 expression and upregulated PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA)55490 expression. The proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and invasion capacities of A549 cells were strongly inhibited by the extract.

Conclusion

Xanthii fructus can inhibit the malignant behaviors of lung cancer cells.

Open access

Wang Zhen-fei, Liu Li, Liang Lin and Hao Qin

Abstract

Objective

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Radix Glehniae on the migration and invasion abilities of lung cancer cells.

Methods

Normal bronchial cell line 16HBE and lung cancer cell line SK-MES-1 were treated with Radix Glehniae extract. Proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities were determined by Cell Counting Kit (CCK)-8, Transwell, and Matrigel assays, respectively. The expression and secretion levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 were detected by quantitative PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively.

Results

Radix Glehniae extract inhibited the migration and invasion abilities of SK-MES-1 cells and enhanced TIMP2 expression and secretion by SK-MES-1 cells, without causing toxicity to 16HBE cells.

Conclusion

Radix Glehniae is useful in lung cancer treatment.

Open access

Silvia N. Genova, Stoian N. Bichev and Vladimir G. Kanarev

Abstract

There is only limited data on the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations in squamous cell carcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas of the lung in patients of the Southern Bulgarian region and the efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. AIM: Previous reports for Bulgarian population showed high incidence of EGFR mutations in the squamous cell carcinomas, so we set the goal to investigate their frequency in Southern Bulgaria, after precise immunohistochemical verification of lung cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-six lung carcinomas were included in this prospective study. All biopsies were initially analysed with p63, TTF1, Napsin A, CK7, CK34βE12, synaptophysin, CK20 and CDX2. Two hundred and twenty-five non-small cell lung carcinomas were studied with real-time PCR technology to assess the status of the EGFR gene. RESULTS: We detected 132 adenocarcinomas (58.7%), 89 squamous cell carcinomas (39.2%), 4 adenosquamous carcinomas (1.8%), 9 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (3.8%) and 2 metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas (0.8%). Activating mutations in the EGF receptor had 3 out of 89 squamous cell carcinomas (3.37%). We have established mutations in L858R, deletion in exon 19 and rare mutation in S7681. One out of four adenosquamous carcinomas had a point mutation in the L858R (25%). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of EGFR mutations we found in lung squamous cell carcinomas in a Southern Bulgarian region is lower than that in European countries. Ethnic diversity in the region does not play role of an independent predictive factor in terms of mutation frequency.

Open access

Marina Markovic, Dalibor Jovanovic, Zeljko Todorovic, Marija Zivkovic, Aleksandar Dagovic, Slobodanka Mitrović, Marina Petrović and Jelena Nešić

Abstract

Breast metastases from an extra-mammary malignancy are rare. Among the lung malignancies that metastasise in the breasts, previous literature has described approximately 30 cases of NSCLC and only a few cases of SCLC. Here, we present a 54-year-old woman with metachronous breast metastasis from pulmonary small cell carcinoma. She presented with a soft tissue mass in the right lung hilum. After bronchoscopy with biopsy, SCLC was verified. Th e patient was given 4 cycles of etoposide and cisplatin followed by radiation therapy. Seven months after the diagnosis of primary lung cancer, the patient palpated a mass in her right breast. Clinical examination and further diagnostics revealed the suspected malignancy, and a radical mastectomy was performed. Immunohistochemical findings suggested metastatic SCLC in the breast. Differentiation between primary and metastatic cancer in the breast is very important for therapeutic planning

Open access

Xiao-Jing Guo, Li-Li Wei, Xin-Hui Li, Ning- Ning Yu, Shao-Bo Gao, Dong-Yan Qin, Fu-Mei Chu and Kun Li

Abstract

Objective

The aim of this study was to explore the safe and effective method of expectoration in the preoperative period of patients with lung cancer resection and to promote the rehabilitation of patients.

Methods

A total of 100 cases of lung cancer patients undergoing elective surgery were divided into the observation group and the control group, with 50 cases in each group. The control group was treated with vibration expectoration vest for expectoration during the perioperative period, and the observation group was treated with respiratory function exerciser that has expectoration function in the perioperative period, three times a day, and the effect was evaluated after 5 days.

Results

The number of patients in the observation group after the first expectoration time was significantly less than that of the control group (P<0.001). Pain score, pulmonary atelectasis, and pulmonary infection rate of the observation group were significantly lower than those of the control group; the hospitalization time was significantly shorter than that of the control group; and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).

Conclusions

Lobectomy for lung cancer patients with perioperative respiratory training for respiratory function exercise, compared with conventional methods, is helpful for postoperative expectoration and to reduce the incidence of adverse events.

Open access

Marija Karakolevska-Ilova, Elena Simeonovska Joveva and Marija Dimitrovska Ivanova

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Leptomeningeal metastases are diagnosed in 1% to 8% of patients with cancer. The most common histology is leukaemia, lymphoma, breast carcinoma, lung carcinoma and melanoma. The aim of this study is to show the appearance of leptomeningeal metastases in lung and breast cancer with specific biological features.

AIM: The study is a review of two cases - breast and lung carcinoma with specific biological features who eventually have developed leptomeningeal metastases.

CASE PRESENTATION: Although CNS metastasis most commonly occurs in those with known systemic metastases, our patient had biological indolent disease (nor hormone negative or HER 2 positive and no metastatic disease) and still LM did occur. LM remains a devastating complication of cancer with classic presentation with multifocal neurologic signs and symptoms (like the case with lung cancer), but many patients also have evidence of impaired CSF flow, and hydrocephalus may be the only presenting manifestation of LM.

CONCLUSION: The prognostic factors associated with survival in patients with LM metastasis are not certain as well as right treatment for these patients which is still a big challenge. Due to the lack of randomized studies and especially of studies referring to one specific primary tumor, there is currently no generally accepted standard of care in the treatment of LM metastases.

Open access

Ugur Gonlugur, Arzu Mirici and Muammer Karaayvaz

Abstract

Background. Few data are available concerning incidence, clinical picture, and prognosis for pancreatic metastases of small cell lung carcinoma. In this paper we review the related literature available in English language.

Conclusions. Although pancreatic metastases are generally asymptomatic, they can rarely produce clinical symptoms or functional abnormalities. The widespread use of multi-detector computerised tomography (CT) in contemporary medical practice has led to an increased detection of pancreatic metastases in oncology patients. Tissue diagnosis is imperative because radiological techniques alone are incapable of differentiating them from primary pancreatic tumours. Pancreatic metastases occur in the relative end stage of small cell lung cancer. The main complications of these lesions, although rare, are acute pancreatitis and obstructive jaundice. Early chemotherapy can provide a survival benefit even in patients with mild acute pancreatitis or extrahepatic biliary obstruction.

Open access

Rumana Makhdoomi, Khalil Baba, Rayees Malik, Suhail Malik, Mohsin Rasool and Basharat Mubeen

Abstract

Calcification and ossification are very rare in primary squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. We report a 55-year-old male with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the lung who on histopathological examination was seen to have extensive calcification and ossification. Squamous carcinoma of the lung rarely presents with osteocartilaginous metaplasia. The case is presented here for its unique presentation.