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Open access

Grażyna Lutosławska

Abstract

Purpose. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) belongs to the IL-6-type cytokine family, which, besides IL-6, comprises of IL-11, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), oncostatin M (OSM), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), cardiotrophin-1 (CT) and cardiotrophin-like cytokine (CLC). The metabolic effects of IL-6 differ markedly depending on the nature of the target cell with positive action on nerve cells’ differentiation and hematopoesis, but negative in the etiology of autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis. In a target cell, IL-6 can simultaneously generate functionally distinct or sometimes contradictory signals depending on the in vivo environment, and the final physiological effect is a consequence of the orchestration of the diverse signals. Thus, its physiological effects are characterized by pleiotropy and redundancy. At present, it has been well documented that in obese individuals, IL-6, as an adipokine secreted into circulation by adipose tissue in proportion to body fat content and an elevated level of the cytokine in the plasma, adversely affects insulin signaling and glucose disposal in skeletal muscles and liver. Moreover, several lines of evidence indicated that IL-6 is a myokine synthesized in skeletal muscle and secreted into the bloodstream in response to exercise. In this way muscular work has a potential to stimulate adipose tissue lipolysis and provides an energy to working muscle. Furthermore, muscle-originated IL-6 acts locally, positively affecting intramuscular fat utilization. It has also been postulated that IL-6 is inevitable for satellite cell stimulation and muscle hypertrophy and repair.

Open access

G-G Gan, R. Subramaniam, L-H Lian and Vs. Nadarajan

ABSTRACT

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is one of the cytokines that has been well studied and implicated in many diseases including cancers. The frequency of the IL-6 -174 (G/C) polymorphism had been proven to differ in various populations. Malaysia is a country with three major ethnic populations, Malays, Chinese and Indians. In this study, we proposed to determine the G or C allele frequency of the IL-6 -174 polymorphism in these three populations. A total of 348 blood samples were available for analysis. The median age for the subjects was 31 years. There were a total of 245 males and 103 females. A total of 86 Malays (25.0%), 122 Chinese (33.0%) and 140 Indians (40.0%) were genotyped. The result showed a significant difference in the G or C allele frequency of the -174 polymorphism. The total frequencies for the G and C alleles were 91.0 and 9.0%, respectively. In the Malays, the allele frequency of the C allele was 4.0% compared with 19.0% in the Indians. The C allele was not detected in the Chinese population. This finding is the first reported on the Malaysian population and may be important in determining risk of diseases associated with the IL-6 polymorphism in these three populations

Open access

Hassan Boskabadi, Jalil Tavakol Afshari, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Gholamali Maamouri, Mohammad T Shakeri, Amirhossein Sahebkar and Gordon Ferns

Abstract

Background: Perinatal asphyxia is a major cause of neurologic morbidity and mortality in infants. Objective: Determine the serum level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in neonates with perinatal asphyxia and its relation to the severity of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and short term neurological outcome. Methods: Serum IL-6 levels were measured at birth, and at 24 and 48 hour post-partum in 37 consecutive uninfected neonates with peri-natal asphyxia and 45 randomly selected healthy newborns. Results: Serum IL-6 concentrations in the infants who developed hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy was 43 folds higher compared to values in the normal infants (p < 0.001) and 1.9 folds higher as compared to infants with asphyxia who did not subsequently develop hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (p <0.001). Serum IL-6 concentrations were also related to the degree of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and neurologicaldevelopmental outcomes at the time of discharge. Conclusion: Serum levels of IL-6 increased in neonates with asphyxia, and this was most pronounced in neonates with adverse outcomes.

Open access

I.D. Tarța, Carmen Denise Căldăraru, Mirela Gliga, Adina Huțanu, Z. Bajko, E. Carașca and G.A. Dogaru

Abstract

Introduction: Chronic inflammation has a proven role in atherogenesis, lipid profile parameters being related to cytokine production. In kidney transplant recipients, interleukin 6 (IL-6) is significantly associated with graft-related outcomes and also alterations of cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between chronic inflammation and glucidic-lipidic metabolism disorders in a group of patients with kidney transplantation as renal replacement therapy. Methods: A prospective observational study which enrolled thirtysix non-diabetic kidney transplant recipients was conducted in the Nephrology and Peritoneal Dialysis Department, County Clinic Hospital of Tirgu Mures. The study group was divided as following: recipients with serum IL-6 concentration higher than 3.8 pg/ml (group A) and IL-6 within the normal range (group B). Results: Allograft recipients with higher serum IL-6 had significant higher erytrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR, p=0.0067). Patients with over-the-range levels of IL-6 had significant higher levels of serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol respectively (p=0.0242 and p=0.0081). Serum Apo-B was also significant higher in Group A than Group B. Protein excretion was significant higher in patients from group A (p=0.0013). No statistical significant relationship could be proven between elevated levels of IL-6 and hbA1c, insulin and glycosuria disturbances in the two groups. Also, we found no statistical significant association between resistivity and pulsatility indices (both hilum and intragraft) or carotid intima media thickness. Conclusion: Serum interleukin 6 is related to lipid profile disorders and less to glucidic metabolism anomalies in non-diabetic kidney transplant recipients.

Open access

Shixia Zhang, Manliang Hao and Yuzhong Ma

Abstract

Introduction: The objective of this study was to describe a laparoscopic abomasal cannulation (LAC) technique, and compare the extent of the surgical trauma after LAC and open abomasal cannulation (OAC) by examining postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores and serum values of interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α in sheep. Material and Methods: Twelve healthy ewes, weighing 38-43 kg, were used. Three-portal laparoscopic techniques were used for LAC procedures. OAC was performed by a right flank laparotomy. Results: Abomasal cannulation was accomplished in all sheep without major intraoperative and postoperative complications. The abomasal contents were collected easily in both groups. Comparative studies found that open procedures exhibit a more pronounced short-term increase in cytokines and significantly higher VAS pain scores than the corresponding laparoscopic procedures. Conclusion: The laparoscopic technique proved to be less traumatic than the conventional open technique.

Open access

Mihaela Jurdana, Maja Cemazar, Katarina Pegan and Tomaz Mars

Abstract

Background. Long term effects of different doses of ionizing radiation on human skeletal muscle myoblast proliferation, cytokine signalling and stress response capacity were studied in primary cell cultures.

Materials and methods. Human skeletal muscle myoblasts obtained from muscle biopsies were cultured and irradiated with a Darpac 2000 X-ray unit at doses of 4, 6 and 8 Gy. Acute effects of radiation were studied by interleukin - 6 (IL-6) release and stress response detected by the heat shock protein (HSP) level, while long term effects were followed by proliferation capacity and cell death.

Results. Compared with non-irradiated control and cells treated with inhibitor of cell proliferation Ara C, myoblast proliferation decreased 72 h post-irradiation, this effect was more pronounced with increasing doses. Post-irradiation myoblast survival determined by measurement of released LDH enzyme activity revealed increased activity after exposure to irradiation. The acute response of myoblasts to lower doses of irradiation (4 and 6 Gy) was decreased secretion of constitutive IL-6. Higher doses of irradiation triggered a stress response in myoblasts, determined by increased levels of stress markers (HSPs 27 and 70).

Conclusions. Our results show that myoblasts are sensitive to irradiation in terms of their proliferation capacity and capacity to secret IL-6. Since myoblast proliferation and differentiation are a key stage in muscle regeneration, this effect of irradiation needs to be taken in account, particularly in certain clinical conditions.

Open access

Tetiana Ashcheulova, Oksana Kochubiei, Ganna Demydenko, Nina Gerasimchuk and Alla Maliy

Abstract

Background and aims: Essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus possess some common pathogenetic components, in particular, activation of immune inflammatory response, the intercellular mediators of which are cytokines. In our study, hypertensive patients were examined, depending on presence of concomitant prediabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus, for the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines oncostatin M, interleukin-6 in conjunction with glucometabolic parameters and lipid metabolism parameters.

Material and methods: A total of 94 hypertensive patients were examined. Oncostatin M and Interleukin-6 plasma level detected using ELISA (BSM).

Results and conclusions: The 1st group consisted of hypertensive patients. The 2nd group included hypertensive patients with prediabetes. The 3rd group were hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We have revealed the increased circulating level of oncostatin M and interleukin-6 in patients 1st group, which confirms the pathogenetic value of hypertension as a stimulus for hyperproduction of these cytokines. In 2nd group the level of oncostatin M and interleukin-6 decreased, which could probably be explained, on the one hand, by dual effects of the family of interleukin-6 the representatives of which either contribute to the development of insulin resistance or, vice versa, enhance the insulin sensitivity of tissues.

Open access

Diana Aniela Moldovan, Maria Despina Baghiu, Alina Balas, Emese Rozalia Fabian-Frast and Cristian Boeriu

Abstract

Objectives: Our study aimed to evaluate and compare the accuracy of C-reactive protein, Procalcitonin and Interleukine-6 in identifying serious bacterial infections (SBI) in children with fever without source.

Methods: 139 children, aged 7 days to 36 months, addressing the Emergency Department from a Romanian university hospital, were prospectively enrolled during 2013. C-reactive protein, Procalcitonin and Interleukin-6 were determined for every patient. SBI diagnosis was based on cultures results and chest radiographs.

Results: 31 patients (22.3%) had SBI. C-reactive protein [AUC: 0.87 (95%CI: 0.81-0.92)] and Procalcitonin [AUC: 0.83 (95%CI: 0.76-0.89)] proved strong prediction value for SBI and performed better than Interleukin-6 [AUC: 0.77 (95%CI: 0.69-0.84)]. For the group of children with the duration of fever less than 8 hours, Interleukin- 6 was the best predictor [AUC: 0.88 (0.76-0.95)].

Conclusions: Both C-reactive protein and Procalcitonin are strong and similar predictors for SBI, and Interleukin- 6 might be a better SBI screening tool for children with shorter duration of fever.

Open access

H. Elegańczyk-Kot, A. Nowak, J. Karolkiewicz, M. Laurentowska, B. Pospieszna, K. Domaszewska, J. Kryściak and E. Michalak

The influence of short-term high altitude training on inflammatory and prooxidative-antioxidative indices in alpine ski athletes

Exposure of alpine skiing athletes, while training, at altitude hypoxia and low ambient temperature can modify the response of the immune system and increase reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) generation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of six day training model "live low - train high" on selected indicators of immune and antioxidant-prooxidant balance of alpine skiing competitors. The study was performed in 7 men, alpine skiers, who underwent 6-day training at Kaunertal glacier (3160 m). Before departure to glacier training, and after returning to sea level participants underwent series of tests. Somatic characteristics, anaerobic exercise capacity, blood morphological parameters and concentrations of interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (hsCRP), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant status (TAS), total iron (Fe) and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were assessed. High altitude training has led to a significant increase in anaerobic capacity (p<0.05) and serum concentrations of IL-6 and hsCRP (p<0.05). A negative correlation among the difference in iron (ΔFe) concentration between two study terms and the change of hsCRP levels was also found (p<0.05). Alpine training conditions led to a slight increase in immunological indices concentration in studied skiers. However, it did not cause any significant change in prooxidant-antioxidant balance, which could be related to earlier anaerobic training adaptation.

Open access

Olgica Nedić, Goran Miljuš and Vesna Malenković

Summary

Background: Insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) activities are disturbed during critical illness. Time-course changes in the concentrations of insulin, IGF-I and IGFbinding proteins (IGFBPs) were monitored in this study and their correlation with interleukin (IL)-6 was assessed in patients subjected to total gastrectomy and specific nutritional regime.

Methods: Patients were fed post-operatively according to the following scheme: parenteral nutrition on day 1, enteral nutrition combined with parenteral form from day 2 to 7, peroral nutrition from day 8 and full oral nutrition from day 14. Blood samples were taken periodically and the levels of IL-6, insulin, IGF-I and IGFBP-1 to -4 were determined.

Results: On day 1 post-operatively, the concentration of IL- 6 reached its maximum and decreased afterwards. The concentration of insulin increased until day 3 and then started to fall. The concentration of IGF-I, already low preoperatively, continued to decrease. The concentration of IGFBP-1 peaked on day 1 post-operatively, whereas the concentration of IGFBP-3 decreased on that day. The concentration of IL-6 correlated positively with the concentration of IGFBP-1 and negatively with IGFBP-3. On day 14, the concentrations of IL-6, insulin and IGFBP-1 returned to or were close to their basal levels, whereas the concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 remained reduced.

Conclusions: 14-day post-operative recovery, which included specific nutritional support, was suitable to restore insulin concentration and re-establish IGFBP-1 regulation primarily by nutrition. Very low IGF-I level on day 14 after surgery and IGFBP-3 concentration still lower than before surgery indicated that the catabolic condition was not compensated.