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Irina Evansa, Edgars Vasilevskis, Michail Aron, Inara Logina and Indulis Vanags

Interventional Pain Management using Fluoroscopy and Ultrasound Imaging Techniques

Interventional injection therapies play a major role in the management of various pain conditions and are becoming an integral part of the multidisciplinary therapies required to improve and rehabilitate pain patients. Many of these procedures have historically been performed without imaging guidance. Imaging-guided techniques with fluoroscopy or ultrasound increase the precision of these procedures and help confirm needle placement. Imaging-guided techniques should lead to better results and reduced complication rates and they are now becoming more popular. These improvements are probably due in part also to better patient selection by experienced pain physicians.

Open access

Ioan Țilea, Codruța Gal, Andreea Varga and Roxana Rudzik

Abstract

Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is a cardiomyopathy that can either result from arrested or abnormal myocardial morphogenesis during heart development, or can be acquired later in life. Current practice guidelines recommend different strategies for the management of patients with LVNC. Common clinical features of this disease include cardiac failure, thromboembolism, life-threatening arrhythmia or sudden cardiac death, which could indicate a worse prognosis. The disease may occur alone or in association with other congenital cardiac, neuromuscular, mitochondrial or metabolic disorders. The association of left ventricular non-compaction with other structural cardiac congenital diseases (such as atrial or ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, obstruction of ventricular outflow tract) is rare. As clinical manifestations of LVNC are non-specific, particular imaging modalities (echocardiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging or ECG gated computed tomography) should be used in order to establish the diagnosis of LVNC. Antiarrhythmic drugs and implantable cardioverter defibrillators may be considered for the management of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with ventricular non-compaction. We report the presentation, diagnosis and management of a 46 year-old female with refractory severe cardiac failure, repeated syncope due to LVNC and atrial septal defect, requiring medical therapy and an implantable cardioverter defibrillator as a "life bridge" to heart transplantation.