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Open access

Agnieszka Bołdak and Monika Guszkowska

Abstract

Introduction. For some time, the issue of participating in high-risk sports, including skydiving, has been linked to the trait of sensation seeking, but skydivers do not constitute a homogeneous group in terms of this factor. The aim of the study was to determine the role of the need for sensation in performing skydiving and to examine whether the importance of this factor differs depending on gender. Material and methods. The study included a total of 143 skydivers (98 men and 45 women) aged from 17 to 49 years with different levels of expertise in skydiving. In total, 73 respondents were categorised as novices, and 70 were considered experts. Novice skydivers were defined as having completed no more than 10 jumps in their lives. Expert skydivers were persons who had made at least 100 jumps in their lives and had a licence to perform skydiving independently, without instructor supervision. The need for stimulation was measured using the Sensation Seeking Scale IV by Zuckerman, in its Polish version by Oleszkiewicz-Zsurzs. Results. Since a high proportion of individuals with a strong need for sensation was found among both men and women, it can be concluded that it is an important factor in primary selection in skydiving (when the sport is undertaken), regardless of gender. Conclusions. The significance of sensation seeking as a factor in secondary selection in skydiving (when the sport is being performed) differs depending on the particular dimension of sensation seeking and gender. Susceptibility to boredom is probably a significant factor in secondary selection in women.

Open access

Victoria Ancuța Rus, Florina Ruța, Maria Sălcudean, Monica Tarcea, Costela Șerban, Călin Avram, Iustinian Simion and Theodora Benedek

Abstract

Background: Adopting a healthy lifestyle, including a healthy diet, weight control, regular exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol limitation, plays an important role in treating high blood pressure and cardiovascular and chronic diseases.

Aim: This study aimed to investigate adherence to the DASH diet in relation to the occurrence of high blood pressure and chronic disease risk factors, in a group of people from Tîrgu Mureș.

Material and methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on a food frequency and lifestyle questionnaire applied to a group of 2,010 people aged 15–92 years from Tîrgu Mureș.

Results: Individuals over the age of 45 had higher DASH scores (Q4, Q5) compared to subjects younger than 40 years (Q1 and Q2, p <0.001). An important percentage (19.3%) of subjects who preferred a meat-based diet (Q3) had significantly larger abdominal circumference (mean 92.2 ± 0.91 cm, p <0.001). An association between pure alcohol intake (mean 5.6 ± 0.43 g) and an unhealthy diet (Q1) was observed, compared to the average 1.7 ± 19 g of alcohol consumed by subjects with a healthy diet (Q5), alcohol consumption decreasing with an increasing DASH score (p <0.001).

Conclusion: This study shows that individuals diagnosed with at least one cardiovascular risk factor had a higher adherence to the DASH diet than individuals with no cardiovascular risk factors, most likely due to the fact that diagnosed individuals had changed their eating behavior and lifestyle from the time of diagnosis, with a positive impact on treatment outcomes and quality of life.

Open access

Somchai Wongkhantee, Vigrom Jennetisin, Thitima Anukulanantchai and Kittisak Sawanyawisuth

Abstract

Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a silent killer in hospitalized patients. Its prevalence in Thai population may be different from Western countries.

Objective: To evaluate recognized risk factors for DVT in high-risk Thai patients according to the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP).

Methods: Hospitalized patients were prospectively enrolled at the Department of Medicine, Khon Kean Hospital. The study period was January 2010 to March 2011. Inclusion criteria were patients who were admitted with either (1) heart or respiratory failure or (2) one of the following conditions: cancer, sepsis, acute stroke, or inflammatory bowel disease. The admission length was at least four days. Patients were excluded if the hospitalization was because of venous thromboembolism or if there was a requirement for heparin therapy.

Results: One hundred patients met the study criteria during the study. Of those, 5 patients (5%) had evidence of DVT by ultrasonography. None of these patients had pulmonary embolisms by computed tomographic angiography. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, only acute stroke was significantly associated with DVT. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 19.72; (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37, 284.37). DVT was the only significant factor associated with death during admission with adjusted OR of 30.76 (95% CI: 2.02, 469.03).

Conclusions: The prevalence of DVT in hospitalized high-risk patients by ACCP criteria was low. Admission because of acute stroke may increase the risk of DVT and having DVT may result in high mortality.

Open access

Samaneh Naseri

Abstract

The term cultural capital has gained a widespread popularity as an analogy with economic capital, and capitalism rules and debates since the early 1970s. Essentially, cultural capital is not inherited, yet it is achieved through personal endeavors. Acquisition of cultural capital demands an incessant and hard work in addition to lifelong learning and acculturation. Hence, the present study examines the relationship between forms of cultural capital and high-risk behaviors of Iranian college students. The impact of each form on the incidence of high-risk behaviors is measured. A survey consisting demographical items, and items assessing cultural capital and tendency towards high-risk behaviors are applied. The results suggest a meaningfully negative relationship between sub-types of cultural capital and high-risk behaviors among undergraduate students in Iran. So, the author concluded that with an increase in cultural capital and the sub-types, the incidence of high-risk behaviors decreases consequently.

Open access

Sirirat Anutrakulchai, Cholatip Pongskul, Dhavee Sirivongs, Pantipa Tonsawan, Kaewjai Thepsuthammarat, Sutin Chanaboon, Supannee Promthet and Bandit Thinkhamrop

Abstract

Background

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health problem with a high risk of hospitalization and death. Few nationwide data have been reported regarding the outcomes of patients hospitalized with CKD in developing countries.

Objectives

To study the risk factors associated with mortality and high treatment costs of adult patients hospitalized with CKD in Thailand.

Methods

The medical data forms for adult inpatients with CKD collected in fiscal year 2010 were analyzed to determine the number of CKD admissions, associated comorbidities and complications, mortality rates, and hospital charges. Factors influencing mortality rates were evaluated by multiple logistic regression.

Results

The total number of CKD patients was 128,338. After adjustment, the major factors associated with high hospital charges were (a) comorbidities (e.g. pneumonia OR 3.18, 95% CI 3.03–3.34; sepsis OR 2.87, 95% CI 2.74–3.00; acute kidney injury (AKI) on preexisting CKD OR 2.83, 95% CI 2.69–2.98) and (b) dialysis treatment (i.e., hemodialysis OR 5.16, 95% CI 4.94–5.39; peritoneal dialysis OR 3.40, 95% CI 3.14–3.69). The risk factors for high mortality were: being male, elderly, having comorbidity (viz., sepsis, respiratory failure, stroke, pneumonia, ischemic heart disease, AKI in addition to CKD, heart failure, and diabetes), and CKD complications (viz., metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, volume overload, and anemia requiring blood transfusion).

Conclusions

Prevention and early treatment of any comorbidity and complications of CKD might reduce mortality and treatment costs of patients hospitalized with CKD.

Open access

From Migrant Identity to Migration Industry:

The changing conditions of transnational migration

Ninna Nyberg Sørensen

Abstract

In this article, I reflect on changes in the conditions of transnational mobility over the past 25 years. Drawing on continuous engagement with Dominican migrants in sending, transit, destination and return situations, I argue that increasingly strict migration control measures during this period have profoundly altered the existential option of living lives across borders. I specifically address changes in the right to move and settle, the absence of avenues for regular migration and the concomitant rise in high-risk irregular migration. Examples include the risk to life, safety and investments during journeys, the risk of exploitation in both transit and destination countries and the risks resulting from being subject to deportation and removal from family and community. I argue that the by now well-established tradition of transnational migration research, in particular the multi-local focus on the social relations that facilitate migration, can be fruitfully extended by paying equal attention to structural factors that restrict mobility.

Open access

Chao Meng, Na Li, Zhaoxiao Tong, Huangxin Yan and Shenxiao Min

Abstract

Viral hepatitis C is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the world and may cause serious hepatic diseases in the future. Hepatitis C-infected people account for approximately 2% to 3% of the world’s population. The main causes of hepatitis C infection in developing countries are unsafe medical injection and contaminated blood and blood products; whereas in developed countries, it is mainly caused by injection, drug abuse, and high-risk sexual behavior. The focus of hepatitis C prevention and control should be placed on safer blood supply, safer health care and related unnecessary injection, reduction of injection drug use, and high-risk sexual behavior because effective vaccine and postexposure prophylaxis are not yet available.

Open access

Iwona Grzegorzewska and Lidia Cierpiałkowska

Developmental Task Attainment in Adolescents from Families with a Recovering Alcoholic or Active Alcoholic Father

The problem under consideration is the issue of adolescent developmental tasks in families with alcohol-related problems, especially in families which contain one or more treated alcoholics. In the present work it was hypothesised that the treatment of alcoholic fathers would be one of the more important protective factors in families coping with alcoholism. The participants of the study included 91 children, aged 17-18. The research sample was comprised of three groups: 31 children of active alcoholics, 30 children of treated alcoholics, and 30 children of non-alcoholic parents. In general, the results of the study highlight the roles of temperament and parenting practices in the progress of developmental tasks. The data revealed that family characteristics were correlated to the predictors of these tasks. The groups used in the study were differed according to the factors of their developmental tasks.

Open access

Laurynas Rimševičius, Diana Aksionova, Marius Miglinas, Jolita Badarienė, Ligita Ryliškytė, Alma Čypienė, Vytautas Kasiulevičius, Mantė Barzdenytė, Justina Tracevičiūtė and Aleksandras Laucevičius

Summary

Increased awareness of chronic kidney disease stimulates an interest towards early detection and prevention. The true prevalence of kidney injury varies from 10 to 40%, mostly depending on the methodology of the study and the population enrolled. A screening strategy targeting the highest risk groups, those with diabetes or hypertension, family history of diabetes, hypertension, or kidney disease, is likely to be most efficient and cost effective. Quantification for albuminuria should be performed using laboratorymethods or albumin to creatinine ratio and should be monitored at regular intervals. The most correct equations calculating glomerular filtration rate differ in separate populations, and the most accurate equations in patients with high cardiovascular risk are MDRD and CKD-EPI. Markers of early kidney damage have association with other target organs damage, even in subclinical or preclinical mode. Individuals at stage 4 and 5 chronic kidney disease, with higher levels of proteinuria, proteinuria together with haematuria, rapidly declining glomerular filtration rate, or poorly controlled hypertension should be referred to a nephrologist in order to identify the cause, provide recommendations, slow progression, or treat complications.

Open access

Minshan Hu, Zhengke Li and Ding Zhi Fang

Abstract

Background: Serum lipid concentrations are associated with genetic and environmental factors. Studies of interaction between genetic variations and diets may provide more insight into the mechanisms of lipid metabolism and the development of coronary heart disease.

Objective: We studied the interaction of a common C-to-T substitution at position -514 of the hepatic lipase promoter with high carbohydrate diet in a young and healthy Chinese population lipid profiles.

Methods: Fifty-six young, healthy Chinese subjects were given stabilization diets of 54% carbohydrate to exclude interference from the dietary background of the subjects. This was followed with a high carbohydrate diet of 70%. We analyzed the serum lipid profiles at baseline, after the stabilization diet, and after the high carbohydrate diet. Hepatic lipase gene polymorphisms were also determined.

Results: After the high carbohydrate diet, almost the whole population had significantly lower levels of phospholipids and all the females showed significantly higher levels of triacylglycerol (TAG). Notably, carriers of C allele had significantly lower levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Males with CC, CT genotypes and females with CC genotype had significantly lower levels of total cholesterol. Furthermore, CC genotype males showed significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A significant difference in the hepatic lipase C-514T polymorphism was found in phospholipid of males with TT >CT >CC.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that the C-514T polymorphism in the hepatic lipase gene could modulate the impact of a high carbohydrate diet on lipid profiles in this young and healthy Chinese cohort. This influence is gender-specific.