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Open access

Anna Kapczyńska

Abstract

A greenhouse experiment was carried out on lachenalia plants to determine the effect of different bulb planting terms (from October to January) on the growth and flowering of cultivars ‘Ronina’ and ‘Rupert’, in the natural light conditions. From every planted bulb emerged stems and flowers, but the time of flow–ering was dependent on the planting term and genotype. Irrespective of the planting term, plants of ‘Rupert’ were taller than those of ‘Ronina’. The planting term had an influence on the length of the inflorescence in ‘Rupert’, but did not affect in ‘Ronina’. The bulbs of ‘Rupert’ produced more than twice as many florets as ‘Ronina’ bulbs. Irrespective of the genotype, the bulbs planted the earliest produced the thinnest stems. The two tested cultivars were long-lasting flowering pot plants - their inflorescences remained decorative for over 20 days.

Open access

Ekaterina Kozuharova

Abstract

Pollination in high mountain habitats is an important ecosystem service in climate change conditions. The aim of this study was to use pollen load analysis to assess flower constancy and foraging choices of bumblebees foraging on Onobrychis pindicola, a high-mountain endemic plant. The flower constancy to the foraging source O. pindicola was very high - over half of the bumblebees had pure Onobrychis-type pollen loads. In the mixed pollen loads we found one to seven pollen types other than Onobrychis-type and the functional flower morphology was different from the flag type. Some were gullet while others were dish/bowl functional morphology type. Thus the theory/belief that once discovering the flag blossom as a foraging resource bumblebees tended to visit other plants with such functional morphology was rejected. An abundance of plants did not determine food choice. We could not trace an obvious pattern of the bumblebees’ preference to functional blossom morphology but they were attracted to dish-bowl blossoms.

Open access

Barbara Dyki, Renata Nowak and Anna Stępowska

The Influence of Flower Structures on the Seeds Productivity of the Carrot Breeding Lines

The aim of the study was to examine the morphological diversity of flowers of male-sterile (CMS) and male-fertile breeding lines of carrot and its influence on seed setting.

In examined male-sterile carrot population stamens are transformed into petal-like structures of different shapes. It was observed that in some anther-like structures sporogenic tissue degenerates. It is supposed that decrease of seeds productivity of carrot breeding lines could be caused by morphological abnormalities of mother and father-parental flowers. Degeneration of pollen, the absence of endothecium, which is responsible for opening the anthers and growth of pollen tubes on the external area of the pistil, decreasing the number of functional pollen influence negatively fertilization. Moreover, other specific traits of male-sterile mother plants, as reduction of nectaries size, pistils deformation, ovule and embryo degeneration also inhibit process of seed setting. The lowest amount of seeds produced plants with multiple stigma pistils and nectaries deformations. Male-sterile plants with white flower petals, big nectaries, exposed, doubled pistils and big ovaries produced more seeds than the other mother plants.

Open access

Dilek Oskay

Abstract

Morphological features of the endemic Erodium somanum are investigated based on the specimens collected from natural populations from Soma in Manisa. Almost all morphological characteristics are expanded and some morphological characteristics are firstly determined in this study. E. somanum is a dioecious species and in this study drawings of male and female individuals are given for the first time. An umbel is 3-5 flowered in female plants and 6-11 flowered in male plants, pedicels accrescent to 20-25 mm in fruit. Flower morphology was identified in detail and drawings are given for the first time. Stigma color ranges from yellow to red in populations. The fruit is long-beaked 4.8-8 cm, stout and adpressed pilose, glandular below. Mericarp morphology investigated for fruit characters has a special diagnostic value for systematic studies. The mericarp micromorphology and seed micromorphology were determined for the first time. Mericarp size 9-12 mm, mericarps have two apical shallow pits (foveoles) without furrow beneath. Mericarp surface ornamentation is foveate with crowded bristles of dissimilar size, some longer and others shorter. Mericarp pit is crowded with eglandular hairs and some sparse, long-stalked glands which are also at the start of the awn. Seed size is 4.5-6×1.5-2 mm, seed type is narrowly ovate, seed surface is ruminate.

Open access

Adgaba Nuru, Ahmad A. Al-Ghamdi, Yilma T. Tena, Awraris G. Shenkut, Mohammad J. Ansari and Anwer Al-Maktary

Abstract

The aim of the current study was to determine the floral phenology, nectar secretion dynamics, and honey production potentials of two naturally growing lavender species (L. dentata and L. pubescens), in southwestern Saudi Arabia. In both species, flowering is continuous. This means that, when open flowers on a spike are shaded, new flowers emerge. Such a flowering pattern might be advantageous to the plant to minimise competition for pollinators and promote efficient resource allocation. The flowering periods of the two species overlap. Both species secreted increasing amounts of nectar from early morning to late afternoon. The mean maximum volumes of accumulated nectar from bagged flowers occurred at 15:00 for L. pubescens (0.50 ± 0.24 μL/flower) and at 18:00 for L. dentata (0.68 ± 0.19 μL/flower). The volume of the nectar that became available between two successive measurements (three-h intervals) varied from 0.04 μL/flower to 0.28 μL/flower for L. pubescens and from 0.04 μL/flower to 0.35 μL/ flower for L. dentata, This variation reflects the differences in the dynamics of nectar secretion by these species, and indicates the size of the nectar that may be available for flower visitors at given time intervals. The distribution of nectar secretions appears to be an adaptation of the species to reward pollinators for longer duration. Based on the mean amount of nectar sugar secreted by the plants, the honey production potentials of the species are estimated to be 4973.34 mg and 3463.41 mg honey/plant for L. dentata and L. pubescens, respectively.

Open access

Ewa Szczuka, Irena Giełwanowska, Irena Pidek, Aleksandra Seta, Marcin Domaciuk and Wiesław Kołodziejski

Pollen of the Antarctic plants Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica and its representation in moss polsters

Formation, structure, and representation in moss polsters of pollen grains of Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. and Deschampsia antarctica Desv. (the only two native flowering plants growing in Antarctica) were investigated by means of light microscopy. Microsporogenesis and male gametogenesis of both investigated plant species proceded in the way typical of other angiosperms. C. quitensis forms spherical, two-nuclear pollen grains enveloped by the thick polyporate sporoderm. Pollen grains of D. antarctica are three-nuclear, and their sporoderm contains one aperture. Both investigated species form chasmogamic and cleistogamic flowers. In moss samples, collected according to Pollen Monitoring Programme method, the local element - Poaceae and Colobanthus prevailed. The Poaceae pollen type includes mostly Deschampsia, but other grains, such as Poa annua, which was reported to grow in the vicinity of H. Arctowski Station, cannot be excluded. Among long-distance elements, Nothofagus pollen prevailed. One to seven pollen grains of this tree were found in each sample, which had been transported by strong westerly winds from southern South America. All the examined spectra also contained numerous fungal spores and other unidentified (probably non-sporomorphous) elements.