The world in 21st century is facing the problem of growing energy consumption while the supply of fossil fuels is being reduced. This resulted in the development of research into the use of renewable energy sources and development of new technologies for energy production. In Polish conditions the development of agricultural biogas plants finds its legitimacy in the document developed by the Ministry titled "Trends in agricultural biogas plants in Poland in 2010-2020”. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the weather conditions and the degree of nitrogen fertilisation on yield of reed canary grass (Phalaris Arundinacea L.) and to determine their susceptibility to anaerobic digestion, and usefulness of the production of biogas. Carried out experiments showed that increasing nitrogen fertilisation (from 40 to 120 kg N/ha) linearly increased canary grass green biomass yield from 32 to 46.3 t/ha. However, the highest biogas yield 126 m3/ha was obtained when 80 kg N/ha was applied.
Anna Kacprzak, Mariusz Matyka, Liliana Krzystek and Stanisław Ledakowicz
Ladislav Illéš, Eva Candráková, Richard Pospišil and Jozef Žembery
In the years 2010 and 2011, a field trial was established in the administrative area Kolinany, Barack farm. We evaluated the growth of aboveground phytomass depending on different levels of fertilization. In the climatically unbalanced growing years, the phytomass yield of amaranth was different. Extremely wet conditions during the growing season exceeding long-term normal precipitation confirmed the assumption of high growth of aboveground phytomass in the observed amaranth genotype. In 2010, the highest amaranth aboveground dry matter in phytomass reached 3231.40 g m2 in the variant with the fertilization dose of 150 kg ha-1. In the climatically different year 2011 with lower precipitation, the highest aboveground phytomass yield of 3956.95 g m2 was reached in the fertilized variant as well.
Marie Štýbnarová, Aleš Dufek and Rémy Delagarde
The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in floristic composition of permanent grasslands after the cessation of their regular utilisation and organic fertilisation. A long-term small plot trial was established in 2004 in locality Rapotín. During 2004-2012, the experiment was fertilised with compost and slurry, both with the range of stocking rates 0.9, 1.4 and 2.0 livestock units (LU)/ha (corresponding to 54, 84, and 120 kg N/ha). The plots were cut 2-4 times per year depending on given dose of fertiliser. During 2013‒2016, the regular management was ceased and the grasslands were completely abandoned. Before the grassland abandonment, the highest total number of species (24 species) was found in the treatments regularly fertilised with compost. The dominance of grasses was influenced by the grassland management, with decreasing intensity of utilisation, the dominance of grasses increased. Four years after the grassland abandonment, the species diversity in almost all treatments decreased and the dominance of grasses increased in all treatments, up to the value 67-80%. Based on the data about the soil chemical parameters from two investigated years, our results suggested not only the effect of grassland management and its subsequent abandonment, but also a residual effect of the both organic fertilisers. These findings indicated the importance of the maintenance of regular grassland management for sustainable conservation of grassland communities.
Tiia Kangor, Pille Sooväli, Ylle Tamm, Ilmar Tamm and Mati Koppel
Pyrenophora teres (net blotch) and Cochliobolus sativus (spot blotch), the most widely spread diseases in the Northern Baltic region, have high impact on cereal production. The effect of three levels of fertilisation and two fungicide treatments on the severity of barley diseases, grain yield and quality traits (protein content, test weight, thousand kernel weight (TKW), grading) was tested during a period of three years. Weather conditions during the growing season highly determined disease severity, yield and quality. In addition, the infection level of P. teres was more dependent on fungicide treatment (p ≤ 0.001) and barley variety (p ≤ 0.001) while C. sativus infection was influenced more by fertilisation (p ≤ 0.001) and year x fertilisation interaction (p ≤ 0.001). Fungicide treatment had no influence on grain yield and protein content, but slightly improved TKW (p ≤ 0.05), test weight (p ≤ 0.001) and grading (p ≤ 0.001). However, these quality traits were mostly influenced by barley variety (p ≤ 0.001). TKW and test weight were highest at fertilisation level N80P12K43. The effect of year and fertilisation contributed significantly to the grain protein content. Grain yield and protein content were highest at the maximum fertiliser application (N100P15K54).
Ewa Błońska, Kazimierz Januszek, Tomasz Wanic and Stanisław Małek
The aim of this study was to assess the condition of soil after serpentine fertilisation by determining the activity of phosphatase and some physicochemical properties of soil. The study was conducted in southern Poland in the Wisła Forest District (49°8’12.92N 18°58’56.36E). The following variants: C - control - no fertiliser; S - ground serpentinite; SN - serpentinite + nitrogen; SP - ground serpentinite + P; SNP - ground serpentinite + NP; SNPK - ground serpentinite + NP (as above) + K. Fertilisation of serpentinite stimulates the activity of phosphatase in soil under spruce stands. The positive impact is reflected in the organic horizon. Less activity was noted in the humus-mineral horizon (AE) in all the fertiliser combinations three years after the fertilisation. Fertilisation of serpentinite improves the chemical properties - pH was increased, reduction of molar ratio of exchangeable calcium to magnesium form was noted.
Ladislav Kováč, Jana Jakubová and Danica Šariková
Experiments with soybean on heavy soils of East Slovak Lowlands were established in the years 2010–2012. The effect of mineral fertilisers and soil conditioner application on soybean’s yield using three tillage systems (minimum tillage (MT), conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT)) was studied. Production costs and economic efficiency of crop management practices were evaluated. The influence of production year on soybean crop was significant in the order of 2011, 2010 and 2012. Statistical evaluation confirmed that the effects of CT and MT systems were more significant compared with NT system. No significant differences were found between the variants of the mineral fertiliser and conditioner application. Differences in the total cost of soybean cultivation, as measured between years, were not significant. Fertilisation variants with application of HUMAC agro and NPK generated the highest costs. On the other hand, the lowest costs were achieved at fertilisation variants with application of NPK alone. Comparing tillage variants, the CT system had the highest costs each year. Significant savings were achieved on MT and NT variants. During the experimental period, a profit was reached on all variants. Applying NPK alone, the highest profit was achieved in 2010 and 2012 using MT system and in 2011 with CT tillage. The variant b2 with PRP sol in the years 2010 and 2011 was the most profitable using NT system and in 2012 using MT. Variant with HUMAC agro was the most profitable in each year using MT. The lowest income threshold for zero profitability was calculated in 2012. Using CT farming techniques at NPK fertilisation variant b1 in 2012, the income threshold was 1.85 t/ha, at variant b2 PRP sol it was 2.10 t/ha and at variant b3 HUMAC agro it was 2.42 t/ha. At MT and NT systems, the income threshold values for zero profitability were lower.
Ján Horák and Vladimír Šimanský
An experiment of different application rates of biochar and biochar combined with nitrogen fertiliser was conducted at experimental field on a Haplic Luvisol located in Nitra region of Slovakia during the growing season of spring barley (2014). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of biochar and biochar combined with nitrogen fertilisation on the soil organic carbon (SOC). The treatments consisted of 0, 10 and 20 t/ha of biochar application (B0, B10 and B20) combined with 0, 40 and 80 kg/ha N of nitrogen fertiliser applied (N0, N40 and N80). The results showed that SOC content at the beginning and end of the trial was always higher at the plots amended with biochar as compared to control plots (B0N0, B0N40 and B0N80); however, statistically significant effects were observed only at the beginning of the trial as well as at the end of trial in B20N40 treatments. Overall, the highest values of SOC contents were obtained at the beginning as well as at the end of the trial when 10 and 20 t/ha of biochar was applied together with 40 kg/ha N.
Zenia Michałojć and Michał Koter
Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is a species that is becoming increasingly popular due to the health value and taste qualities of fruits. Studies on cranberry ‘Pilgrim’ were carried out in 2012-2013 in the nursery farm. Plants were grown in containers in open space. The effect of method of fertilization and application of mycorrhizal vaccine on the growth, development and nutritional status of plants during the first two years of cultivation in the nursery was evaluated. Fertilizer characterized by a controlled release of nutrients (CRF) – Osmocote 6M, agent with sustained-releasing components (SRF) – Hortiform pH, fertigation and fertilization using Hortiform pH combined with fertigation, were applied. The vaccine contained fungi of Hymenoscyphus sp. genus that are characteristic for Vaccinium genus. Significantly greater weight of plant shoots as well as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium contents were recorded in plants supplied with the mycorrhizal vaccine. A positive effect of slow-releasing fertilizers on plant weight and their chemical composition has been demonstrated, whereas plants fertigated developed lower mass of shoots and contained less nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium.
Vladimír Šimanský and Erika Tobiašová
The effect of different doses of NPK fertilizer on the changes in quantity and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) in Rendzic Leptosol was evaluated. Soil samples were taken from three treatments of different fertilization: (1) control - without fertilization, (2) NPK 1 - doses of NPK fertilizer in 1st degree intensity for vine, and (3) NPK 3 - doses of NPK fertilizer in 3rd degree intensity for vine in the vineyard. Soil samples were collected in years 2008-2011 during the spring. The higher dose of NPK fertilizer (3rd degree intensity of vineyards fertilization) was responsible for the higher content of labile carbon (by 21% in 0-0.3 m and by 11% as average of the two depths 0-0.3 m and 0.3-0.6 m). However, by application of a higher dose of NPK (1.39%) in comparison to no fertilizer treatment (1.35%) or NPK 1 (1.35%) the tendency of total organic carbon content increase and hot-water soluble carbon decrease were determined. Fertilization had a negative effect on SOM stability. Intensity of fertilization affected the changes in quantity and quality of SOM; therefore it is very important to pay attention to the quantity and quality of organic matter in productive vineyards.
Nenad Malić, Una Matko Stamenković, Mihajlo Marković and Zlatan Kovačević
The surface exploitation of mineral raw materials inevitably changes the environment, thus resulting in soil degradation. This paper presents the results of growing sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense Pers.) in the reclaimed Deposol (technosols) in the Stanari Coal Mine area. Green manuring was the cultural practice used for sudangrass growing and land reclamation. The purpose of this research is to increase the amount of organic matter in the Deposol surface layer. The research was performed within a two-year period (2009-2010) at the experimental (technosol) site of the Stanari Coal Mine, located on the inside part of the overburden deposition site, near the Raskovac pit. The research of green manuring included a two-factor experiment with four replications. Two cultivars of sudangrass (Factor A) were used with three fertilization treatments (Factor B). The soil analyses indicated a sandy and low fertile soil. The experimental plot Deposol showed favorable physical properties, whereas its chemical and biological properties proved very unfavourable. The highest yield of biomass (29.15 t ha-1), as well as the dry matter (10.30 t ha-1), was recorded in the cultivar ‘Piper Sweet’ (in 2009), which was completely treated with mineral fertilizers. The lowest yields of biomass (2.05 t ha-1) and dry matter (0.95 t ha-1) were observed in the cultivar ‘Srem’ in 2010. Statistically significant differences were found between the treatments applied, emphasizing that only certain cultivars of sudangrass and types of fertilization (encompassing reasonably high amounts of nitrogen) can significantly increase the amount of organic matter in Deposol.