Miroslav Rusko, Pavol Andrejovský, Martin Bosák and Martin Rovňák
Economical Aspects of Environmental Safety
After transition to market economy, information about environmental condition has been accessible and the findings of such "inventory control" are being published. There is a space for slowing-down the growth of economics damages on environment and for disposal of old environmental loads, the solution to which requires around 3.3 - 4.3 billion Euro in conditions of the Slovak Republic. This space is formed in difficult socio-economic conditions, mainly regarding the shortage of investment for solving these problems, but also due to the insufficient legislation and its slow approximation to the European Union requirements, as well as the insufficient environmental appreciation and low awareness of "satiation of our own future".
Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Raúl Arellano, Jos Vanrenterghem and Gracia López-Contreras
The aim of this study was to compare sagittal plane lower limb kinematics during walking on land and submerged to the hip in water. Eight healthy adults (age 22.1 ± 1.1 years, body height 174.8 ± 7.1 cm, body mass 63.4 ± 6.2 kg) were asked to cover a distance of 10 m at comfortable speed with controlled step frequency, walking forward or backward. Sagittal plane lower limb kinematics were obtained from three dimensional video analysis to compare spatiotemporal gait parameters and joint angles at selected events using two-way repeated measures ANOVA. Key findings were a reduced walking speed, stride length, step length and a support phase in water, and step length asymmetry was higher compared to the land condition (p<0.05). At initial contact, knees and hips were more flexed during walking forward in water, whilst, ankles were more dorsiflexed during walking backward in water. At final stance, knees and ankles were more flexed during forward walking, whilst the hip was more flexed during backward walking. These results show how walking in water differs from walking on land, and provide valuable insights into the development and prescription of rehabilitation and training programs.
Sustainability of agricultural production in the world is in serious crisis. Interdependence of agricultural production and the environment is multiple and causality works both ways. On one hand, there are environmental changes which hamper food production, and on the other, the agricultural production, as it is, is severely damaging the environment. The very systems of agricultural production jeopardize future production. The goal of this paper is to explore causes of limitations of sustainable agricultural development in the world, where the authors emphasize the following: gas emissions with greenhouse effect, a disturbed cycle of nitrogen circulation and destruction of biodiversity.
We explored the factors of interdependence of environment and agricultural production and possibilities of sustainable development with a methodological frame work of research, analyzing, comparing and synthesizing domestic and international literature. The authors propose a holistic approach to sustainable development, carefully suited to the regional and local circumstances.
Sustainability as a Tool for Increasing Competitiveness
One of the main aims of companies is to reach quality of products and services. In particular, good quality of services is a highly rated factor so the price often stands behind. Nevertheless, many companies focus on the quality as the customer is willing to pay for it. The company is more competitive; however, they must strive to achieve continual improvements. Accepting the principles of sustainable development is one of the instruments or strategies to reach competitive growth. Currently this notion is being profaned and often considered only as a simple phrase, but many companies from different spheres, such as tourism, electrical engineering, retail, civil engineering, etc., show its real benefits. Companies create strategies of sustainable development following company competitiveness.
Growing load and deterioration of the environment can be interpreted as a result of some external effects interventions. While the positive externalities influence the positive productional and utilizational functions of other subjects, the negative externalities influence the negative ones. Both types of external effects can act as parcial or global externalities. Linking the environmental issues to economy and finance is an important sphere. Coimplementation of both marketing and environmental audits is an important element of this sphere too.
Growing load and deterioration of the environment can be interpreted as a result of some external effects interventions. While the positive externalities influence the positive productional and utilizational functions of other subjects, the negative externalities influence the negative ones. Both types of external effects can act as parcial or global externalities. Linking of environmental issues to economy and finance is an important sphere.
A. S. Batubara, Z. A. Muchlisin, D. Efizon, R. Elvyra and M. Irham
The objective of the present study was to examine the growth pattern and condition factors of the naleh fish, Barbonymus gonionotus Bleeker, 1849 in Nagan River, Nagan Raya District, Aceh Province, Indonesia. The sampling was conducted for 12 months from January 2016 to December 2016 using the explorative survey method. The sampling locations were determined based on the information given by local fishermen. A total of 761 fish samples were collected during the study. The Linear Allometric Model (LAM), Fulton’s and Relative Weight conditions factors were utilized to analyze the length-weight relationship and condition factor of the fish using growth parameters. The results showed that the highest coefficient of b was recorded in December, where the b value of males were 3.82 and 4.23 for the females with the average b value of males and females were 2.92 indicating an isometric growth pattern. The average Fulton’s condition factor (K) was 2.28 and the average Relative weight (Wr) condition factor was 100.59. It is concluded that fish had the isometric growth pattern and based on K and Wr value, the result implies that the waters are still in a good condition. Furthermore, the availability of food sources, low competitors, and low predators indicate that the aquatic environment is in a stable condition.
This paper analyzes the environmental regulatory reforms of the Republic of Moldova to restore roads and problems over time. Goals and objectives are the analysis of the current situation on road rehabilitation and environmental assessments in this area, as well as issues that require in rehabilitation and maintenance of roads in the Republic of Moldova.Are described briefly: general aspects of road rehabilitation issues; legislation and environmental regulations in the road; differences between Moldova and procedures of the World Bank's environmental assessment in the construction and rehabilitation of roads; problem of national legislative and normative acts harmonization to international requirements.The paper discusses specific environmental to appear on completion of the rehabilitation of roads in the Republic of Moldova. In the final part of the paper presents the conclusions and some suggestions on how to facilitate the rehabilitation of roads in accordance with Agenda 21 of the country and European and international requirements.
The India's ambitious Rs 9,393 crore Ken-Betwa river interlinking project will impact very significantly on Socio-economic life of two million people of Bundelkhand region, India. Water is an important input for survival and sustenance of life. The demand of this natural gift has been increasing exponentially. This ambitious project will help us in irrigation, potable water, cheap transportation, electricity as well as a source of livelihood for our ever increasing population. In Bundelkhand region, there is a severe problem of lack of irrigation in one region and water logging in others. Damage to crops due to drought and pitiable drainage facility could be managed. The objectives of the paper are to study socio-economical issues and environmental challenges in Ken-Betwa River link in India and to study environmental impact of this Project.
Despite the fact that they are public institutions and that they seem to have the status quo of their functioning already established, schools are still exposed to various internal and external organisational changes. The article comes as a broad reflection on schools viewed as organisations and their environment, including activities that are undertaken in favour of development of such organisations. First, the article presents an explanation of the essence of an organisation. On the basis of some definitions provided by expert literature, schools are presented as organisations. Some particular attention is focused on the problem related to school environment in its micro- and macro-dimensions; it specifically refers to the establishment and maintenance of organisation–school relations. Theoretic considerations underlie the discussion of the essence of the presented survey and its results. The aim of the survey has been to identify entities that cooperate with contemporary schools and the environment in which such cooperation takes place and also to indicate the consequences that result from the interpretation of schools as organisations and their relations with the environment, viewed from the perspective of resources. The material for the research survey has been collected with the methods involving questionnaire forms and interviews. The results of the research come as a part of a more extensive research process.