Vesa Cosmin Mihai, Daina Lucia Georgeta, Popa Loredana, Moisi Mădălina, Zaha Carmen Dana and Popa Amorin Remus
Diabetes incidence in Bihor County in 2016 was 0.55% or 558/100.000 and in 2017 was 0.43% or 437/100.000. The prevalence of diabetes was 5.24% in 2016 and 5.48% in 2017. Age adjusted prevalence was 7.20% in 2016 and 7.66% in 2017, in the 20-79 age group. This prevalence is lower than the national prevalence from PREDATORR study of 11.6%. Data from diabetes registers underestimate diabetes prevalence. As a consequence it is mandatory to effectuate a screening of diabetes mellitus in Bihor County.
Daria Ługowska, Tomasz Ługowski, Olga Krzywińska, Mariusz Kozakiewicz and Paweł Grzelakowski
Diabetes is an “epidemic of the 21st century” and it is estimated that in 2011 6.7% of Poland’s population suffered from diabetes, one quarter of which was unaware of the disease. Such a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus results in an increasing number of physicians being confronted with the problem of qualifying patient with diabetes to partake in amateur sports, including diving. This publication presents the most important information concerning risk assessment, admission of diabetic patients to amateur diving and some proposed protocols of management before and during sport practice.
Serdar Olt, Orhan Öznas, Haydar Bağış and Eda Tahir Turanlı
Background: Previous studies have shown that chemerin has important roles in the development of obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and T2DM. The main goal of our study was to investigate the role of Chemerin rs17173608 gene polymorphism in T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus).
Materials and methods: 100 patients with T2DM and 50 healthy volunteers were included in the present study. DNA isolation from blood samples was performed with K1820-02 DNA Mini Kit. Chemerin gene polymorphism was detected by Tetra- Amplification Refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (T-ARMS-PCR). At the end of T-ARMS-PCR, samples were run using gel electrophoresis. Some samples were validated by sequence analysis.
Results: In the genotype analysis, 18.0% of patients had TT genotype and 81.0% of TG genotype was detected. GG genotype was not detected in any patient. Genotype of 1 patient was unidentified. Genotype distribution of healthy control group was 12.0% TT genotype and 88.0% TG genotype. Similar to the T2DM group, the GG genotype was not detected in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between T2DM group and healthy control group for TG and TT genotypes.
Conclusion: To our knowledge, chemerin rs17173608 gene polymorphism has been investigated in T2DM for the first time herein. In the present study, the TT genotype ratios were higher in the T2DM subjects than in healthy subjects. G allele frequency in the T2DM group was lower than that in the control group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups.
Background and aims: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), increasing the risk of progression of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to active TB threefold, threatening the TB control, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess active and latent TB infection frequency in patients with DM.
Material and methods: There were enrolled in this study 503 adult DM patients. Active TB screening was performed through anamnestic data, clinical examination and chest X-ray and latent TB infection screening was evaluated using the tuberculin skin tests (TST).
Results: A number of 63 (12.5%) patients had type 1 DM and 440 (87.5%) had type 2 DM. Personal history of TB was present in 21 (4.2%) subjects, 5 (8.1%) with type 1 DM and 16 (3.6%) with type 2 DM. The TST was positive in 258 (51.5%) patients and 54 (10.7%) presented cough for more than two weeks at the time of examination. The chest X-ray revealed suggestive lesions for active TB in 4 (1%) subjects and lesions of inactive TB in 90 (22.4%) subjects.
Conclusions: TB screening must receive proper attention in patients with DM, being essential for diagnosis in those with nonspecific symptoms.
Edhem Hasković, Azra Bureković, Adnan Husić, Muhamed Fočak and Erna Islamagić
The aim of this study was to analyze the values of biochemical parameters in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis and ketonuria. In this prospective comparative study conducted at the Clinical Center of the University of Sarajevo, hundred patients of both genders with diabetes mellitus were enrolled. Newly diagnosed diabetic patients with complications like acute ketoacidosis (n = 50) and ketonuria (n = 50) were included in this study and compared. The values of biochemical parameters in these patients were analyzed. We found that mean values of pH, base excess, hydrogencarbonate, sodium, glucose, urea and creatinine concentrations in patients with ketoacidosis were significantly different compared to patients with ketonuria. The values of potassium and calcium serum concentrations were not significantly different. Also, values of pH, base excess, as well as concentrations of hydrogencarbonate, sodium, potassium, calcium, glucose, urea and creatinine were not significantly different between male and female patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. In patients with diabetic ketonuria we found a correlation between admission glucose concentration and acid-base balance.
Katarzyna Strawa-Zakoscielna, Monika Lenart-Lipinska, Aneta Szafraniec, Grzegorz Rudzki and Beata Matyjaszek-Matuszek
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a growing epidemiological problem, and it is currently the most common metabolic disorder in pregnancy, as it affects approximately 2-6% of all pregnant women. In 2014, the Polish Diabetic Association introduced significant changes in the diagnosis of hyperglycemia as first diagnosed in pregnancy, based on the recommendations of the IADPSG of 2010 and WHO of 2013. There are now two categories: diabetes in pregnancy, and GDM. These involve different degrees of severity of metabolic complications for the mother and the growing fetus. Establishing a new diagnostic criterion is significant because of the negative impact of hyperglycemia on the fetus (especially in the first trimester), the increased prevalence of malformations or the possibility of spontaneous abortions in early pregnancy.
Marilena Mitrache, Robert Ancuceanu and Constantin Ionescu-Tîrgoviște
Background and Aims: The aim of this paper was the improvement of diabetes mellitus primary prevention through analysis of the prevalence of diabetogenic risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study group comprises 1590 newly diagnosed subjects with diabetes mellitus in a 24 month period in Ploiesti Municipal Hospital. We analyzed the prevalence in this population of some diabetogenic risk factors reported by different risk scores, including gender, age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (CA), physical activity at least 30 minutes a day, daily fruit and vegetable consumption, blood pressure history, family history of diabetes, etc. Results: Two-thirds of the patients declared a recent major stress. 74% had dyslipidemia at enrolment or hypolipidemic treatment. The presence of fetal macrosomia in the personal history was about 21%, from which 66% with a familial diabetes mellitus history. Conclusions: The risk factors` increased prevalence in diabetes mellitus detected in the analyzed sample population should determine an increased vigilance for an early screening of the people at risk, and to an early diagnosis of the disease.
Carmen Dobjanschi and Rucsandra Dănciulescu Miulescu
Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an increased lifetime risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). GDM has a substantial impact on maternal and foetal short and long-term health. Risk factors for GDM may be genetic or nongenetic and have been analysed in numerous studies. Researches in recent years allowed the identification of other risk factors for GDM except for those already known. Knowledge and identification of all risk factors for GDM allows the elaboration of a prevention strategy of T2DM, it may influence the screening, diagnosis, and, subsequently, treatment modalities for this disease.
Currently it is estimated that there are over 382 million patients with diabetes worldwide and their number is increasing, which makes this metabolic disorder the most common non-contagious disease, particularly related to obesity and physical inactivity. There is a close relationship between diabetes and cardiovascular disease, statistics showing that over 50% of deaths in patients with diabetes are produced by cardiovascular complications. This requires a close collaboration between diabetologists and cardiologists. The mortality caused by atherosclerotic complications is 65-80% for diabetic patients compared to 33% in non-diabetic patients. Moreover, 20% of the patients requiring coronary revascularization procedures are diabetics and over 30% of patients with angiographic exploration have diabetes. Among the patients with diabetes the coronary lesions are present in 50% of cases and the peripheral arteries lesions in 30% of cases.
Olivia Georgescu, Cătălin Nica, Silvia Crăciun, Cristina Toader, Sorin Ioacără and Simona Fica
Background and aims: Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index (CAVI) was developed as an index of arterial stiffness independently of blood pressure and other markers of early atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to assess the correlations between CAVI and renal disease in type 2 diabetic patients compared with those without diabetes. Material
and methods: We evaluated anthropometric, biochemical and vascular parameters (through CAVI) in 133 patients with and 80 without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mean aged 59.34 ± 11.94 years. Results: We found that 52.04 % of subjects with T2DM and 22.22 % of patients without T2DM had pathological arterial stiffness. Mean CAVI value was significantly higher in T2DM (p = 0.04), positively correlated with age and negatively with glomerular filtration rate. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in patients with pathological vascular stiffness was 5.28 times higher in T2DM compared with the control group. Conclusion: The prevalence of pathological vascular stiffness, mean CAVI and prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) were also higher in patients with T2DM than in the control group. Arterial stiffness plays an important role in renal impairment both in normoglycemic subjects and patients with T2DM, so preventive measures to optimize lifestyle and treatment must target the decrease of CAVI