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Open access

Yevhen Pysmenskyy

Abstract

The article covers journalism-related crimes as a relatively distinct category of offences. The importance and purpose of isolating the concept of journalistic criminality under conditions of globalization in the modern theory of legal thought, the rapid development of the information society, and the embodied increase of the role of information and knowledge in human life are emphasized. Attention is paid to the factors affecting the dynamics and development of crimes in the area of professional activities of journalists, which primarily includes the environment of hybrid war. The destructive impact of the social consequences of journalistic crimes on society is evident in the case of Ukraine, which has suffered in the past and to this day experiences the latest information manifestations of hybrid war. The proposition to criminalize the intentional spreading of false information in the media by journalists is discussed. The reasons, basis and conditions for such criminalization are analysed. The existence of criminalization grounds for such an offence is substantiated in the article. However, conclusions are drawn on the inappropriateness of such criminalization due to its non-correspondence with certain conditions associated with difficulties in adjudication and with the problem of proving this type of behaviour. Other means of counteracting the deliberate dissemination of false information are considered.

Open access

Pavel Palcu

Abstract

The unprecedented development of cybernetics was concretized by the emergence of computer technology in ways difficult to predict. In this context, the international underworld and organized crime have expanded the area of criminal acts, but equally there were new investigation possibilities for the police and judicial authorities, limiting the role of intuition and flair, of human spontaneity, the center of gravity falling on their ability to use new technology intelligence they have at their disposal.

Open access

Sevil Sargin and Kadir Temurçin

Crimes and Crime Dispersion in Urban Areas in Turkey

Crime is a phenomenon that arises from the interaction between social, political, economic, physical, psychological circumstances and geographical factors. Since crime occurs in geographical locations, the relationship between crime and location is worth discussing characteristics of a location occur in differents ways. Not only natural geographical factors but also human geographical factors may lead to crime. In this study, the situation, distribution of crimes in the cities which are in the police service zone are dealt with. In addition to crime dispersion in the cities and crimes committed to people and property, crimes committed by month is also studied. In this context, it is seen that since city centres are composed of dense population and urban functions, they feed crime, social control weakens in those areas and they create opportunities for criminals. This causes weakness in society and social capital apart from economic losses in cities. The number of crime incidents, which was 229,513 in 1995, in Turkey, has risen to 785,510 in 2006 with a 3.4 fold increase. 41% of the crimes which were committed in the year of 2006 were against people, 59% were against property.

Open access

Małgorzata Szwejkowska and Elżbieta Zębek

Abstract

Legal requirements for protection of the natural environment are continually being strengthened because of increased human damage to environmental resources. The applicable regulations of the Polish Penal Code towards protection of the environment were considerably amended in 2011 also to ensure implementation of European Parliament and European Council directives 2008 / 99 / EC, issued on the 19th November 2008. In addition, these changes also involve cross-border infringements, so that perpetrators cannot avoid retribution for actions committed under different provisions in individual Member States.

Open access

Ralitsa Voynova

Abstract

The article examines issues, related to the conflicts of jurisdiction in criminal proceedings within the European area, where several countries simultaneously have the competence to conduct a criminal prosecution of the same facts. There have been studied several international legal instruments, postulating the compliance with the Ne bis in idem principle, respectively the prohibition of a second judgment towards the same person and for the same act. Discussed are various preconditions for conflicts of jurisdiction in criminal matters and possible solutions, according to the existing legal mechanisms in this field.

Open access

Lara Barberić, Davorka Čolak and Jasmina Dolmagić

Abstract

This article aims to give an overview of how human rights violations that occurred during the Homeland War in Croatia are redressed by conducting criminal prosecution in the Republic of Croatia. Namely, criminal prosecution as one of the elements of transitional justice is essential not only for establishing the accountability of war crime perpetrators, but also as a warning that such violations shall not be tolerated in the future. Moreover, drawing on the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, this article examines how the efforts made by national prosecution bodies to investigate war crimes are assessed by this court. It concludes with the idea that both prosecution of war crimes and protection of human rights, as guaranteed by The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and the European Court of Human Rights, seek to achieve the same goal, i.e. protecting the most basic human rights of the war crimes victims and other individuals.