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Open access

Janusz T. Cieśliński, Artur Fiuk, Krzysztof Typiński and Bartłomiej Siemieńczuk

Abstract

This study is focused on experimental investigation of selected type of brazed plate heat exchanger (PHEx). The Wilson plot approach was applied in order to estimate heat transfer coefficients for the PHEx passages. The main aim of the paper was to experimentally check ability of several correlations published in the literature to predict heat transfer coefficients by comparison experimentally obtained data with appropriate predictions. The results obtained revealed that Hausen and Dittus-Boelter correlations underestimated heat transfer coefficient for the tested PHEx by an order of magnitude. The Aspen Plate code overestimated heat transfer coefficient by about 50%, while Muley-Manglik correlation overestimated it from 1% to 25%, dependent on the value of Reynolds number and hot or cold liquid side.

Open access

Sylwia Ciaglo-Androsiuk

Abstract

Relation between morphological traits of the root system and yield related traits is an important issue concerning efforts aiming at improving of ideotype of cultivated plants species, including pea. In this paper, to analyse the dependency between traits describing the root system morphology and yield potential, Person’s and Spearman's_correlations as well as canonical correlations were used.

Root system was analyzed in 14 and 21 day-old seedlings growing in blotting-paper cylinders. Yield potential of pea was analysed in a field experiment. Results of Person’s and Spearman's_correlations revealed that number of lateral roots and lateral roots density were correlated witch yield related traits. Correlation between root length and shoot length was observed only for 14 day-old seedlings. The result of canonical correlations revealed that number of lateral roots and lateral roots density had the largest effect on yield related traits. This work highlights, that in order to improve the yield of pea it might become necessary to understand genetic determination of morphological traits of the root system, especially number of lateral roots.

Open access

M. G. Nikolova, A. B. Penkov and M. A. Boyanov

Abstract

Obesity has been linked with vitamin D deficiency in a number of cross-sectional studies, reviews and meta-analyses. The aim of the present study was to assess the correlations of plasma 25(OH) vitamin D levels with indices of body composition examined by DXA with an emphasis on lean and bone mass as well as on indices such as android/gynoid fat, appendicular lean mass, fat-mass indexes (FMI) and fat-free mass indexes (FFMI). 62 adult subjects consented to participate – 27 men (43.5%) and 35 women (56.5%). Their mean age was 45.3 ± 9.5 years. Fan-beam dual-energy X-ray (DXA) body composition analysis was performed on a Lunar Prodigy Pro bone densitometer with software version 12.30. Vitamin D was measured by electro-hemi-luminescent detection as 25(OH) D Total (ECLIA, Elecsys 2010 analyzer, Roche Diagnostics). Statistical analyses were done using the SPSS 23.0 statistical package. The serum 25(OH)D level was correlated significantly only to the whole body bone mineral content, the appendicular lean mass index (ALMI) and the ALM-to-BMI index, underlining a predominant role for lean and fat-free mass. Vitamin D showed a very weak correlation to % Body Fat and the Fat Mass Index (FMI) in men only. Moreover, the multiple regression equation including the associated parameters could explain only 7% of the variation in the serum 25(OH) D levels. Our conclusion was, that there are differences in the associations of the vitamin D levels with the different body composition indices, but these associations are generally very weak and therefore – negligible.

Open access

Maciej Haman

Internally-driven change and feature correspondence in object representation: A key to children's essentialism?

Two experiments were run to investigate how preschoolers use the pattern of an object's change as a cue to noticing correlations among the object's subsequent features. Four-year-old children were familiarized with either an internally or externally-driven transformation of an object, and tested for identification of an animation that did not match the familiar sequence of the object's features. In both experiments children in the internal-change group identified the incorrect sequence significantly more quickly than in the external-change condition. These results strongly suggest that perception of internally-driven transformation facilitates the formation of and/or access to a representation of correspondences between subsequent features of an object. The possible role of this mechanism in essentialist thinking is discussed at the end of the paper.

Open access

Ovidiu Păniţă

Abstract

In the years 2012-2014 on Banu-Maracine DRS were tested an assortment consists of 25 isogenic lines of common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp.vulgare), with the combination of Rht1&rht8 genes, the analyzed characters being the hight of the strain (cm), the number of seeds/spike, seeds weight/spike (g), no. of spikes/m2, weight of a thousand seeds (WTS) (g) and no. of emerged plants/m2. Based on recorded data and statistical processing of those, they were identified a numbers of links between these characters, links quantified by using the correlation.

Regarding the classification based on the average high of the strain, it was found that that there is a strong link between some characters too. Based on component analysis, the no. of seeds/spike and the seeds weight/spikes are components that influence in excess of 83% variance analysis, a total of five genotypes having positive scores for both factors.

Open access

Sebastian Mucha, Ewa Gornowicz, Mirosław Lisowski, Bartosz Grajewski, Jolanta Radziszewska and Tomasz Szwaczkowski

Abstract

The aim of this study was to estimate coefficients of heritability as well as genetic and phenotypic correlations among body weight and carcass traits. The dataset contained records of 387 birds from the second crossbred generation. The following traits were recorded: body weight (BW) at 11 weeks, carcass weight (CW), breast muscle weight including superficial and deep muscle (BMW), leg muscle weight including thigh and shank (LMW), wings weight (WW), skin with subcutaneous fat weight (SW), abdominal fat weight (AFW), skeleton with the back muscle and inedible elements (SBM), and liver weight (LW). Estimates of variance components were obtained by the average information - REML algorithm in the ASReml package. Very high slaughter yield (74.90%) was obtained. Generally, the coefficients of heritability were high. The highest one of 0.75 was estimated for body weight at 11 weeks. High coefficients of h2 were estimated for breast muscle weight (0.69), wings weight (0.70), carcass weight (0.65), skin with subcutaneous fat weight (0.57) and skeleton with the back muscle (0.58), whereas h2 of liver weight was 0.29. Both phenotypic and genetic relationships between the recorded traits were usually positive. Generally, it seems that the crossbreeding scheme can be perceived as a suitable proposal for the breeding practice.

Open access

Carol A. Fowler

Abstract

I review evidence of three kinds relating to leakages in modularity within language domains and between linguistic and nonlinguistic action. One kind of evidence shows that the form-meaning “rift” in language that enables the important principle of duality of patterning and the particulate principle of self-diversifying systems is bridged in many ways. Segmental language forms have iconic meanings, and form-meaning correlations of other kinds emerge cross linguistically. A second kind of evidence occurs in parallel transmission of linguistic prosodic information with iconic and emotional information conveyed suprasegmentally. The final kind of evidence shows the integrality of linguistic and nonlinguistic action (deictic points, speech-accompanying gestures, head motions, facial expressions, etc) in conveying communicative information in public language use. I suggest that these violations of modularity within language and between linguistic and nonlinguistic action reflect the dynamic effects of sets of competing and cooperating constraints including, among others, parity and learnability of language forms that shape communicative actions in social activity.

Open access

Jerzy Nowachowicz, Grażyna Michalska, Tomasz Bucek and Przemysław Wasilewski

Relationships Between Performance Test Results of Gilts of Different Breeds

The relationships expressed as calculated correlation coefficients were determined between the results of 44 110 purebred gilts performance tested in the years 2004-2008. The animals came from the Bydgoszcz Breeding Region and represented 5 breeds (Polish Large White, Polish Landrace, Hampshire, Duroc and Pietrain) and synthetic Line 990. The traits taken into account were: age and body weight on test day, daily body weight gain standardized to 180 days of age, backfat thickness at P2 and P4 points, loin eye height at P4 points, body meat content, and performance test selection index. Negative and highly significant correlations were found between growth rate and standardized backfat thickness at P2 and P4 points in all gilts of the tested breeds except Line 990. In the case of two breeds (Polish Large White and Pietrain) and Line 990, the correlation coefficients between daily body weight gain and standardized body meat content were negative and highly significant, which possibly suggests the unfavourable impact of high growth rate on the meat content. Higher correlation coefficient values were observed between the performance test selection index and the daily body weight gain than between the selection index and the body meat content of Polish Large White, Polish Landrace, Hampshire and Pietrain gilts.

Open access

Oana Bogdan, Dorel Mateş, Aura Emanuela Domil, Marina Adriana Puşcaş, Ancuţa Puşcaş and Ramona Teşu

Abstract

Through this paper, we want to identify the correlations between the benefits and costs of adopting IFRS standards in construction entities in the Western Region of Romania and their performance, using the Pearson correlation coefficient, which measures and describes the direction, degree and form of the association between two variables, thus obtaining high, reasonable, weak and very weak links between the benefits / costs and the performance of the entity.

The tool used in the research undertaken by construction companies is the questionnaire.

The questionnaire “On the Costs and Benefits of IFRS in Construction Companies in the Western Region of Romania” was disseminated among professional accountants in order to identify the perceptions of economists operating in construction companies in the Western Region Romania on the costs and benefits of implementing international standards. Thus, through this paper we aim to identify the correlations between the following benefits and costs:

  • - Benefits of implementation: comparability of information, increased transparency, increased access to capital, cost savings, reduction of informational asymmetry,

  • - Implementation costs: IFRS readiness level, complexity of standards, link between accounting and taxation, existing accounting tradition, costs associated with IFRS conversion, and

  • - Performance of the entity viewed from the perspective of: total revenue and turnover. In the research, we chose to present the analysis of compared to both the total revenues and the turnover, because the difference between the two economic-fiscal indicators is mainly represented by the financial revenues and the incomes from the disposals of assets.

Open access

A. M. Sebbenn, D. H. Boshier, M. L. M. Freitas, A. C. S. Zanatto, A. S. Sato, L. C. Ettori and E. Moraes

Abstract

Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken (Boraginaceae) is a tropical timber tree of great economic value that occurs in Latin America and through most of the Caribbean. Genetic variation in growth, form and survival of eight Central America provenances - five from a dry zone and three from a wet zone - were studied five and 23 years after establishment in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Significant differences between dry and wet zone provenances were detected for diameter at breast height (d.b.h.), stem form and survival and between provenances within these zones for height, d.b.h., volume and survival. Provenances from the dry zone had higher growth rates than those from the wet zone. Genetic correlations among ages for these traits were positive but not significant, while ranking of provenances based on growth and survival changed significantly from five to 23 years of age, indicating that measuring traits at five years of age may not be a good predictor of the same traits at 23 years of age. Genetic correlations on growth traits measured at the same age were large and significant, suggesting substantial gains could be made through indirect trait selection. At 23 years of age the La Fortuna provenance performed best for all traits, while Nueva Guinea performed worst for growth traits and survival and Tres Piedras for stem form. The species’ poor growth compared to that of other tropical tree species at the same experimental site suggests that C. alliodora is not the best silvicultural option for the Luiz Antonio region.