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Open access

Janusz T. Cieśliński, Artur Fiuk, Krzysztof Typiński and Bartłomiej Siemieńczuk

Abstract

This study is focused on experimental investigation of selected type of brazed plate heat exchanger (PHEx). The Wilson plot approach was applied in order to estimate heat transfer coefficients for the PHEx passages. The main aim of the paper was to experimentally check ability of several correlations published in the literature to predict heat transfer coefficients by comparison experimentally obtained data with appropriate predictions. The results obtained revealed that Hausen and Dittus-Boelter correlations underestimated heat transfer coefficient for the tested PHEx by an order of magnitude. The Aspen Plate code overestimated heat transfer coefficient by about 50%, while Muley-Manglik correlation overestimated it from 1% to 25%, dependent on the value of Reynolds number and hot or cold liquid side.

Open access

Sylwia Ciaglo-Androsiuk

Abstract

Relation between morphological traits of the root system and yield related traits is an important issue concerning efforts aiming at improving of ideotype of cultivated plants species, including pea. In this paper, to analyse the dependency between traits describing the root system morphology and yield potential, Person’s and Spearman's_correlations as well as canonical correlations were used.

Root system was analyzed in 14 and 21 day-old seedlings growing in blotting-paper cylinders. Yield potential of pea was analysed in a field experiment. Results of Person’s and Spearman's_correlations revealed that number of lateral roots and lateral roots density were correlated witch yield related traits. Correlation between root length and shoot length was observed only for 14 day-old seedlings. The result of canonical correlations revealed that number of lateral roots and lateral roots density had the largest effect on yield related traits. This work highlights, that in order to improve the yield of pea it might become necessary to understand genetic determination of morphological traits of the root system, especially number of lateral roots.

Open access

Ovidiu Păniţă

Abstract

In the years 2012-2014 on Banu-Maracine DRS were tested an assortment consists of 25 isogenic lines of common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp.vulgare), with the combination of Rht1&rht8 genes, the analyzed characters being the hight of the strain (cm), the number of seeds/spike, seeds weight/spike (g), no. of spikes/m2, weight of a thousand seeds (WTS) (g) and no. of emerged plants/m2. Based on recorded data and statistical processing of those, they were identified a numbers of links between these characters, links quantified by using the correlation.

Regarding the classification based on the average high of the strain, it was found that that there is a strong link between some characters too. Based on component analysis, the no. of seeds/spike and the seeds weight/spikes are components that influence in excess of 83% variance analysis, a total of five genotypes having positive scores for both factors.

Open access

Sebastian Mucha, Ewa Gornowicz, Mirosław Lisowski, Bartosz Grajewski, Jolanta Radziszewska and Tomasz Szwaczkowski

Abstract

The aim of this study was to estimate coefficients of heritability as well as genetic and phenotypic correlations among body weight and carcass traits. The dataset contained records of 387 birds from the second crossbred generation. The following traits were recorded: body weight (BW) at 11 weeks, carcass weight (CW), breast muscle weight including superficial and deep muscle (BMW), leg muscle weight including thigh and shank (LMW), wings weight (WW), skin with subcutaneous fat weight (SW), abdominal fat weight (AFW), skeleton with the back muscle and inedible elements (SBM), and liver weight (LW). Estimates of variance components were obtained by the average information - REML algorithm in the ASReml package. Very high slaughter yield (74.90%) was obtained. Generally, the coefficients of heritability were high. The highest one of 0.75 was estimated for body weight at 11 weeks. High coefficients of h2 were estimated for breast muscle weight (0.69), wings weight (0.70), carcass weight (0.65), skin with subcutaneous fat weight (0.57) and skeleton with the back muscle (0.58), whereas h2 of liver weight was 0.29. Both phenotypic and genetic relationships between the recorded traits were usually positive. Generally, it seems that the crossbreeding scheme can be perceived as a suitable proposal for the breeding practice.

Open access

Maciej Haman

Internally-driven change and feature correspondence in object representation: A key to children's essentialism?

Two experiments were run to investigate how preschoolers use the pattern of an object's change as a cue to noticing correlations among the object's subsequent features. Four-year-old children were familiarized with either an internally or externally-driven transformation of an object, and tested for identification of an animation that did not match the familiar sequence of the object's features. In both experiments children in the internal-change group identified the incorrect sequence significantly more quickly than in the external-change condition. These results strongly suggest that perception of internally-driven transformation facilitates the formation of and/or access to a representation of correspondences between subsequent features of an object. The possible role of this mechanism in essentialist thinking is discussed at the end of the paper.

Open access

Anna Rekiel, Justyna Więcek and Karolina Beyga

Analysis of the Relationship Between Fatness of Late Pregnant and Lactating Sows and Selected Lipid Parameters of Blood, Colostrum and Milk

This study determined the relationships between backfat thickness in sows on day 104 (±2) of pregnancy, changes in fatness between high pregnancy and lactation (day 21), the body weight of late pregnant sows, the level of selected lipid parameters in blood serum, and basic components and fatty acid profile of colostrum and milk. Backfat measurements were taken using an ultrasound device at the P1, P2, P3 and P4 sites and loin eye height was measured at the P4M site. In late pregnant sows, fatness measured at P1, P2, P3 and P4 and the mean of measurements taken at P2 and P4 were correlated with HDL (+0.491**, +0.537**, +0.439*, +0.483** and 0.529**, respectively). Measurements taken at P4 and the mean of P2 and P4 were correlated with cholesterol (CHOL, +0.367* and +0.372*, respectively). Correlations were also found between the level of fatness of pregnant sows (P2, P3, P4, (P2 + P4)/2) and the level of HDL at the end of lactation (+0.534**, +0.440*, +0.412* and +0.487**, respectively). The body weight of late pregnant sows was significantly correlated with the energy and fat levels in colostrum (-0.467** and -0.429*, respectively). In addition, it was correlated with the proportion of fatty acids in the profile (C18:2 +0.417*, C18:3 +0.493*). Correlations were observed between P1 backfat thickness and the proportion of colostrum fatty acids (C18:1 +0.483*, CLA +0.475*), and between P2 backfat thickness and the C20:4 content of milk (-0.421*). A relationship between backfat thickness measured at farrowing and the levels of selected fatty acids in colostrum was found for P2 and C18:3 (+0.471*), P3 and C18:0 (-0.608**), C18:2 (+0.463*) and C18:3 (+0.517*), and P4M and C16:1 (-0.513*). The greater the difference in P1 backfat thickness between late pregnancy and weaning, the higher the content of fat (+0.549**), energy (+0.510*), C18:0 (+0.493*) and CLA (+0.488*), and the lower the content of C14:0 (-0.512*) and C16:0 (-0.457*) in milk. The strong correlations of fatness in late pregnant sows and of changes in fatness during late pregnancy and weaning with some blood, colostrum and milk parameters suggest that sows should be evaluated for fatness during their productive life.

Open access

Jerzy Nowachowicz, Grażyna Michalska, Tomasz Bucek and Przemysław Wasilewski

Relationships Between Performance Test Results of Gilts of Different Breeds

The relationships expressed as calculated correlation coefficients were determined between the results of 44 110 purebred gilts performance tested in the years 2004-2008. The animals came from the Bydgoszcz Breeding Region and represented 5 breeds (Polish Large White, Polish Landrace, Hampshire, Duroc and Pietrain) and synthetic Line 990. The traits taken into account were: age and body weight on test day, daily body weight gain standardized to 180 days of age, backfat thickness at P2 and P4 points, loin eye height at P4 points, body meat content, and performance test selection index. Negative and highly significant correlations were found between growth rate and standardized backfat thickness at P2 and P4 points in all gilts of the tested breeds except Line 990. In the case of two breeds (Polish Large White and Pietrain) and Line 990, the correlation coefficients between daily body weight gain and standardized body meat content were negative and highly significant, which possibly suggests the unfavourable impact of high growth rate on the meat content. Higher correlation coefficient values were observed between the performance test selection index and the daily body weight gain than between the selection index and the body meat content of Polish Large White, Polish Landrace, Hampshire and Pietrain gilts.

Open access

Mirosław Tyra and Grzegorz Żak

Abstract

The aim of the study was to estimate coefficients of heritability for intramuscular fat (IMF) content and other fattening, slaughter and meat quality traits of the pig breeds raised in Poland. In addition, genetic correlations were estimated between IMF content and a group of fattening, slaughter and meat quality traits, which enables this parameter to be included in the BLUP estimation of breeding value. The experiment used Polish Landrace (PL), Polish Large White (PLW), Puławska, Hampshire, Duroc, Pietrain and line 990 animals. A total of 4430 gilts of these breeds, tested at Pig Performance Testing Stations (SKURTCh), were investigated. Heritability of IMF was at intermediate level for the two most common breeds raised in Poland (h2 = .318 for PLW, h2 = .291 for PL). In the group of meat quality traits, high heritability was noted for meat colour lightness (L*) measured by Minolta (from h2 = .453 to h2 = .572). No relationships were found between IMF level and indicators of fattening performance. The highest value observed in this group of traits concerned the genetic relationship with daily feed intake (rG = .227) for the entire group of animals. For the PLW and PL breeds, these relationships were with feed conversion (kg/kg gain) (rG = .151 and rG = .167, respectively). One of the higher relationships observed were genetic correlations with water holding capacity (above rG = -.3) and, for the PLW and PL breeds, with meat redness (a*), which amounted to rG = .155 and rG = .143, respectively.

Open access

R.S. Guilherme, E Klein, A.B. Hamid, S Bhatt, M Volleth, A Polityko, A Kulpanovich, A Dufke, B Albrecht, S Morlot, L Brecevic, M.B. Petersen, E Manolakos, N Kosyakova and T Liehr

Abstract

Twenty-nine as yet unreported ring chromosomes were characterized in detail by cytogenetic and molecular techniques. For FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) previously published high resolution approaches such as multicolor banding (MCB), subcentromere-specific multi-color-FISH (cenM-FISH) and two to three-color-FISH applying locus-specific probes were used. Overall, ring chromosome derived from chromosomes 4 (one case), 10 (one case), 13 (five cases), 14, (three cases), 18 (two cases), 21 (eight cases), 22 (three cases), X (five cases) and Y (one case) were studied. Eight cases were detected prenatally, eight due developmental delay and dysmorphic signs, and nine in connection with infertility and/or Turner syndrome. In general, this report together with data from the literature, supports the idea that ring chromosome patients fall into two groups: group one with (severe) clinical signs and symptoms due to the ring chromosome and group two with no obvious clinical problems apart from infertility.

Open access

Mahmood Farzaneh-Gord and Hamid Rahbari

Developing novel correlations for calculating natural gas thermodynamic properties

Natural gas is a mixture of 21 components and it is widely used in industries and homes. Knowledge of its thermodynamic properties is essential for designing appropriate processes and equipment. This paper presents simple but precise correlations of how to compute important thermodynamic properties of natural gas. As measuring natural gas composition is costly and may not be effective for real time process, the correlations are developed based on measurable real time properties. The real time properties are temperature, pressure and specific gravity of the natural gas. Calculations with these correlations are compared with measured values. The validations show that the average absolute percent deviation (AAPD) for compressibility factor calculations is 0.674%, for density is 2.55%, for Joule-Thomson coefficient is 4.16%. Furthermore, in this work, new correlations are presented for computing thermal properties of natural gas such as enthalpy, internal energy and entropy. Due to the lack of experimental data for these properties, the validation is done for pure methane. The validation shows that AAPD is 1.31%, 1.56% and 0.4% for enthalpy, internal energy and entropy respectively. The comparisons show that the correlations could predict natural gas properties with an error that is acceptable for most engineering applications.