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Open access

Janusz T. Cieśliński, Artur Fiuk, Krzysztof Typiński and Bartłomiej Siemieńczuk

Abstract

This study is focused on experimental investigation of selected type of brazed plate heat exchanger (PHEx). The Wilson plot approach was applied in order to estimate heat transfer coefficients for the PHEx passages. The main aim of the paper was to experimentally check ability of several correlations published in the literature to predict heat transfer coefficients by comparison experimentally obtained data with appropriate predictions. The results obtained revealed that Hausen and Dittus-Boelter correlations underestimated heat transfer coefficient for the tested PHEx by an order of magnitude. The Aspen Plate code overestimated heat transfer coefficient by about 50%, while Muley-Manglik correlation overestimated it from 1% to 25%, dependent on the value of Reynolds number and hot or cold liquid side.

Open access

Sylwia Ciaglo-Androsiuk

Abstract

Relation between morphological traits of the root system and yield related traits is an important issue concerning efforts aiming at improving of ideotype of cultivated plants species, including pea. In this paper, to analyse the dependency between traits describing the root system morphology and yield potential, Person’s and Spearman's_correlations as well as canonical correlations were used.

Root system was analyzed in 14 and 21 day-old seedlings growing in blotting-paper cylinders. Yield potential of pea was analysed in a field experiment. Results of Person’s and Spearman's_correlations revealed that number of lateral roots and lateral roots density were correlated witch yield related traits. Correlation between root length and shoot length was observed only for 14 day-old seedlings. The result of canonical correlations revealed that number of lateral roots and lateral roots density had the largest effect on yield related traits. This work highlights, that in order to improve the yield of pea it might become necessary to understand genetic determination of morphological traits of the root system, especially number of lateral roots.

Open access

Sebastian Mucha, Ewa Gornowicz, Mirosław Lisowski, Bartosz Grajewski, Jolanta Radziszewska and Tomasz Szwaczkowski

Abstract

The aim of this study was to estimate coefficients of heritability as well as genetic and phenotypic correlations among body weight and carcass traits. The dataset contained records of 387 birds from the second crossbred generation. The following traits were recorded: body weight (BW) at 11 weeks, carcass weight (CW), breast muscle weight including superficial and deep muscle (BMW), leg muscle weight including thigh and shank (LMW), wings weight (WW), skin with subcutaneous fat weight (SW), abdominal fat weight (AFW), skeleton with the back muscle and inedible elements (SBM), and liver weight (LW). Estimates of variance components were obtained by the average information - REML algorithm in the ASReml package. Very high slaughter yield (74.90%) was obtained. Generally, the coefficients of heritability were high. The highest one of 0.75 was estimated for body weight at 11 weeks. High coefficients of h2 were estimated for breast muscle weight (0.69), wings weight (0.70), carcass weight (0.65), skin with subcutaneous fat weight (0.57) and skeleton with the back muscle (0.58), whereas h2 of liver weight was 0.29. Both phenotypic and genetic relationships between the recorded traits were usually positive. Generally, it seems that the crossbreeding scheme can be perceived as a suitable proposal for the breeding practice.

Open access

Ovidiu Păniţă

Abstract

In the years 2012-2014 on Banu-Maracine DRS were tested an assortment consists of 25 isogenic lines of common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp.vulgare), with the combination of Rht1&rht8 genes, the analyzed characters being the hight of the strain (cm), the number of seeds/spike, seeds weight/spike (g), no. of spikes/m2, weight of a thousand seeds (WTS) (g) and no. of emerged plants/m2. Based on recorded data and statistical processing of those, they were identified a numbers of links between these characters, links quantified by using the correlation.

Regarding the classification based on the average high of the strain, it was found that that there is a strong link between some characters too. Based on component analysis, the no. of seeds/spike and the seeds weight/spikes are components that influence in excess of 83% variance analysis, a total of five genotypes having positive scores for both factors.

Open access

Maciej Haman

Internally-driven change and feature correspondence in object representation: A key to children's essentialism?

Two experiments were run to investigate how preschoolers use the pattern of an object's change as a cue to noticing correlations among the object's subsequent features. Four-year-old children were familiarized with either an internally or externally-driven transformation of an object, and tested for identification of an animation that did not match the familiar sequence of the object's features. In both experiments children in the internal-change group identified the incorrect sequence significantly more quickly than in the external-change condition. These results strongly suggest that perception of internally-driven transformation facilitates the formation of and/or access to a representation of correspondences between subsequent features of an object. The possible role of this mechanism in essentialist thinking is discussed at the end of the paper.

Open access

Elżbieta Jędrszczyk, Barbara Skowera, Maria Gawęda and Andrzej Libik

Abstract

Cultivation of field tomato in Poland meets unfavorable temperature and precipitation conditions, which affect yield and quality. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of temperature and precipitation conditions on the growth and development dynamics of five cultivars of processing tomato. The analysis took into account the key morphological characteristics of the plant, the inflorescence and fruit, which determine the suitability of the cultivar for processing. Analysis of the effect of meteorological elements on the stem development showed that stem length was most strongly influenced by precipitation – both total precipitation and frequency, rather than by temperature; the greater the rainfall, the more intensive stem elongation. High levels of precipitation limited gains in stem thickness. The number of flowers and fruits formed per inflorescence was negatively correlated with temperature. Excessive precipitation during the entire growing period led to formation of smaller fruits. The length and width of the fruit were negatively correlated with the frequency of precipitation in all stages, and with total precipitation during the period from planting to setting of the first fruits. A beneficial effect of temperature on the length and width of the fruit was noted during the entire growing period. The tomato fruit formed a thicker pericarp when precipitation was more frequent.

Open access

Oana Bogdan, Dorel Mateş, Aura Emanuela Domil, Marina Adriana Puşcaş, Ancuţa Puşcaş and Ramona Teşu

Abstract

Through this paper, we want to identify the correlations between the benefits and costs of adopting IFRS standards in construction entities in the Western Region of Romania and their performance, using the Pearson correlation coefficient, which measures and describes the direction, degree and form of the association between two variables, thus obtaining high, reasonable, weak and very weak links between the benefits / costs and the performance of the entity.

The tool used in the research undertaken by construction companies is the questionnaire.

The questionnaire “On the Costs and Benefits of IFRS in Construction Companies in the Western Region of Romania” was disseminated among professional accountants in order to identify the perceptions of economists operating in construction companies in the Western Region Romania on the costs and benefits of implementing international standards. Thus, through this paper we aim to identify the correlations between the following benefits and costs:

  • - Benefits of implementation: comparability of information, increased transparency, increased access to capital, cost savings, reduction of informational asymmetry,

  • - Implementation costs: IFRS readiness level, complexity of standards, link between accounting and taxation, existing accounting tradition, costs associated with IFRS conversion, and

  • - Performance of the entity viewed from the perspective of: total revenue and turnover. In the research, we chose to present the analysis of compared to both the total revenues and the turnover, because the difference between the two economic-fiscal indicators is mainly represented by the financial revenues and the incomes from the disposals of assets.

Open access

R.-C. Yang and F. C. Yeh

Abstract

A reciprocal experiment was analyzed to determine whether 30 open-pollinated families of peatland and upland populations of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.] sampled from a single area in north-central Alberta, Canada, performed consistently when grown in either flooded or well-drained soils (i.e., if there is a family x soil interaction or generally called genotype x environment interaction (GEI)). The data for the analysis consisted of five traits (height, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, root/shoot dry weight ratio and number of braches) describing growth and rooting performance of tree seedlings in flooded and drained soils (root environments) in a greenhouse for 16 weeks. A mixed-model analysis was used to characterize GEI. The analysis revealed an interesting contrast of GEI patterns between the peatland vs. upland populations: GEI was absent (as indicated by a perfect correlation between flooded and drained soils) in peatland population but present in the upland population. Our results from the characterization of GEI are also consistent with the well-known theory about selection in different environments that correlated responses due to indirect selection are in general less than direct responses. The contrasting patterns of GEI in peatland vs. upland populations may be reflective of different strategies of adaptation to the contrasting environmental conditions, with the peatland trees growing slowly but steadily and with the upland populations growing fast and very responsive to environmental changes.

Open access

Anna Rekiel, Justyna Więcek and Karolina Beyga

Analysis of the Relationship Between Fatness of Late Pregnant and Lactating Sows and Selected Lipid Parameters of Blood, Colostrum and Milk

This study determined the relationships between backfat thickness in sows on day 104 (±2) of pregnancy, changes in fatness between high pregnancy and lactation (day 21), the body weight of late pregnant sows, the level of selected lipid parameters in blood serum, and basic components and fatty acid profile of colostrum and milk. Backfat measurements were taken using an ultrasound device at the P1, P2, P3 and P4 sites and loin eye height was measured at the P4M site. In late pregnant sows, fatness measured at P1, P2, P3 and P4 and the mean of measurements taken at P2 and P4 were correlated with HDL (+0.491**, +0.537**, +0.439*, +0.483** and 0.529**, respectively). Measurements taken at P4 and the mean of P2 and P4 were correlated with cholesterol (CHOL, +0.367* and +0.372*, respectively). Correlations were also found between the level of fatness of pregnant sows (P2, P3, P4, (P2 + P4)/2) and the level of HDL at the end of lactation (+0.534**, +0.440*, +0.412* and +0.487**, respectively). The body weight of late pregnant sows was significantly correlated with the energy and fat levels in colostrum (-0.467** and -0.429*, respectively). In addition, it was correlated with the proportion of fatty acids in the profile (C18:2 +0.417*, C18:3 +0.493*). Correlations were observed between P1 backfat thickness and the proportion of colostrum fatty acids (C18:1 +0.483*, CLA +0.475*), and between P2 backfat thickness and the C20:4 content of milk (-0.421*). A relationship between backfat thickness measured at farrowing and the levels of selected fatty acids in colostrum was found for P2 and C18:3 (+0.471*), P3 and C18:0 (-0.608**), C18:2 (+0.463*) and C18:3 (+0.517*), and P4M and C16:1 (-0.513*). The greater the difference in P1 backfat thickness between late pregnancy and weaning, the higher the content of fat (+0.549**), energy (+0.510*), C18:0 (+0.493*) and CLA (+0.488*), and the lower the content of C14:0 (-0.512*) and C16:0 (-0.457*) in milk. The strong correlations of fatness in late pregnant sows and of changes in fatness during late pregnancy and weaning with some blood, colostrum and milk parameters suggest that sows should be evaluated for fatness during their productive life.

Open access

Jerzy Nowachowicz, Grażyna Michalska, Tomasz Bucek and Przemysław Wasilewski

Relationships Between Performance Test Results of Gilts of Different Breeds

The relationships expressed as calculated correlation coefficients were determined between the results of 44 110 purebred gilts performance tested in the years 2004-2008. The animals came from the Bydgoszcz Breeding Region and represented 5 breeds (Polish Large White, Polish Landrace, Hampshire, Duroc and Pietrain) and synthetic Line 990. The traits taken into account were: age and body weight on test day, daily body weight gain standardized to 180 days of age, backfat thickness at P2 and P4 points, loin eye height at P4 points, body meat content, and performance test selection index. Negative and highly significant correlations were found between growth rate and standardized backfat thickness at P2 and P4 points in all gilts of the tested breeds except Line 990. In the case of two breeds (Polish Large White and Pietrain) and Line 990, the correlation coefficients between daily body weight gain and standardized body meat content were negative and highly significant, which possibly suggests the unfavourable impact of high growth rate on the meat content. Higher correlation coefficient values were observed between the performance test selection index and the daily body weight gain than between the selection index and the body meat content of Polish Large White, Polish Landrace, Hampshire and Pietrain gilts.